BPS Chapter 24

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abby32892
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76646
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BPS Chapter 24
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2011-04-01 16:01:34
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Abby Elkins
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Basic Public Speaking Chapter 24 Vocabulary
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  1. a speech whose goal is to influence the attitudes, beliefs, values, or acts of others
    persuasive speech
  2. a stated position, with support, for or against an idea or issue; contains the core elements of claim, evidence, and warrants
    argument
  3. the Greek rhetorician Aristotle used this term to refer to persuasive appeals to reason and logic
    logos
  4. the Greek rhetorician Aristotle used this term for appeals to emotion. Such appeals can get the audience’s attention and stimulate a desire to act but must be used ethically
    pathos
  5. the Greek word for “character” According to the ancient Greek rhetorician Aristotle, audiences listen to and trust speakers if they exhibit competence (as demonstrated by the speaker’s grasp of the subject matter) and good moral character
    ethos
  6. a classic model of human action developed by Abraham Maslow based on the principle that people are motivated to act on the basis of their needs
    hierarchy of needs
  7. a mode of processing a persuasive message that involves thinking critically about the contents of the message and the strength and quality of the speaker’s arguments
    central processing
  8. a code of processing a persuasive message that does not consider the quality of the speaker’s message, but is influenced by such non-content issues as the speaker’s appearance or reputation, certain slogans or one-liners, and obvious attempts to manipulate emotions. Peripheral processing of messages occurs when people lack the motivation or the ability to pay close attention to the issues
    peripheral processing
  9. an audience of persons with an intimate knowledge of the topic issue, produce, or idea being discussed
    expert audience
  10. the link between a claim and evidence
    warrant
  11. the declaration of a state of affairs in which a speaker attempts to prove something by providing evidence and reasoning
    claim
  12. supporting material that provides grounds for belief
    evidence
  13. an argument that focuses on whether something is or is not true or whether something will or will not happen
    claims of fact
  14. an argument that addresses issues of judgment
    claims of value
  15. an argument that recommends that a specific course of action be taken, or approved, by an audience
    claims of policy
  16. logical explanation of a claim by linking it to evidence
    reasoning
  17. offering a cause-and-effect relationship as proof of a claim
    casual reasoning
  18. a statement that is based on an invalid or deceptive line of reasoning
    logical fallacy
  19. a logical fallacy that uses general opinion as its (false) basis
    bandwagoning
  20. a logical fallacy stated in terms of two alternative only, even though there are additional alternatives
    either-or fallacy
  21. a logical fallacy that targets the person instead of the issue at hand in an attempt to discredit an opponent’s argument
    ad hominem fallacy
  22. a logical fallacy in which an isolated instance is used to make an unwarranted general conclusion
    hasty generalization
  23. a logical fallacy in which the conclusion is not connected to the reasoning
    non sequitur
  24. a logical fallacy in which one instance of event is offered as leading to a series of events or actions
    slippery slope
  25. a logical fallacy suggesting that something is true because traditionally it has been true
    appeal to tradition
  26. a pattern of organizing speech points in which each main point addresses and then refutes (disproves) an opposing claim in a speaker’s position
    refutation organizational pattern
  27. a pattern of organizing speech points so that the speech unfolds as a story with characters, plot, and setting. In practice, this pattern often is combined with other organizational patterns
    narrative organizational pattern
  28. a pattern of organizing speech pints so that they demonstrate (1) the nature of the problem, (2) reasons for the problem, and (3) proposed solution(s)
    problem-cause-solution pattern of arrangement
  29. a five-step process of persuasion, developed by Alan Monroe, that begins with arousing attention and ends with calling for action
    motivated sequence
  30. a pattern of organizing speech points so that the speaker’s viewpoint or proposal is shown to be superior to one or more alternative viewpoints or proposals
    comparative advantage pattern

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