Principles Chapter 8
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Define income and wealth and describe their relation to social class.
- Income is the economic gain derived from wages, salaries, income transfers (governmental aid), and ownership of property.
- Wealth is the value of all of a person's or family's economic assets, including income, personal property, and income-producing property.
- Those with higher income and wealth are higher in social class.
Describe Marx�s perspective on class position and class relationships.
- States that capitalist societies consist of two classes - capitalist (bourgeoisie) class and working class (proletariat).
- Class relationships involve inequality and exploitation. Workers exploited by capitalists to maximize profits. Continual exploitation results in workers' alienation.
Describe current statistics about the poor in the U.S.
Young, female, white(2/3) and native Americans, no high school diploma
Compare Socioeconomic statistics and social class.
- Socioeconomic statistics (SES) is A combined measure that, in order to determine class location, attempts to classify individuals, families, or households in terms of factors such as income, occupation, and education.
Describe the ways that income is distributed in the U.S.
- Income refers to money, wages, and payments that periodically are received as returns for an occupation or investment.
- And is very unevenly distributed in the US and varies from face and class.
- 20 wealthiest-50 of income
- 20 poorest-4 of income
Compare functionalist and conflict approaches to measuring class.
- Functionalist perspectives view classes as broad groupings of people who share similar levels of privilege on the basis of their roles in the occupational structure. According to the Davis-Moore thesis, stratification exists in all societies, and some inequality is not only inevitable but also necessary for the ongoing functioning of society. The positions that are most important within society and that require the most talent and training must be highly rewarded.
- Conflict perspectives on class are based on the assumption that social stratification is created and maintained by one group (typically the capitalist class) in order to enhance and protect its own economic interests. Conflict theories measure class according to people�s relationships with others in the production process.
Distinguish between absolute and relative poverty and describe the characteristics and lifestyle of those who live in the U.S.
- Absolute Poverty exists when people do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life.
- Relative Poverty exists when people may be able to afford basic necessities but are still unable to maintain an average standard of living.
- Young, female, white(2/3) and native americans
Describe the contributions of the Symbolic Interactionist perspective to understanding social inequality.
The beliefs and actions of people reflect their class location in society.
Outline Weber�s multidimensional approach to social stratification and explain how people are ranked on all three dimensions.
In his analysis of these dimensions �wealth, prestige, and power- of "class" as an ideal type (that can be used to compare and contrast various societies) rather than as a specific social category of "real" people.
Discuss slavery and its relationship to global poverty.
- Slavery is an extreme form of stratification in which some people are owned by others.
- They have little to no control over their lives.Five societies have had them-ancient Greece, the roman empire, the united states, the Caribbean, and brazil.
- Four primary characteristics in us it was for life + inherited, were considered property not human beings, denied rights, and coercion was used to keep them in their place.
Distinguish between functionalist and conflict explanations of social inequality.
- F-Some degree of social inequality is necessary for the smooth functioning of society (in order to fill the most important functions) and thus is inevitable.
- C-Powerful individuals and groups use ideology to maintain their favored positions in society at the expense of others, and wealth is not necessary in order to motivate people.
Summarize the most important consequences of inequality in the U.S.
- The stratification of society into different social groups results in wide discrepancies in income and wealth and in variable access to available goods and services. People with high income or wealth have greater opportunity to control their own lives. People with less income have fewer life chances and must spend their limited resources to acquire basic necessities.
- Physical health, mental health, nutrition, housing, education, and crime and lack of safety.
Describe the ways that SES has shaped the life choices of members of your own family.
Discuss the distribution of income and wealth in the U.S. and describe how this distribution affects life chances.
- Very unequal.
- Lower is diminished access to quality health care, nutrition, housing, unequal educational opportunities, and crime and lack of safety.
The hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on their control over basic resources.
Max Weber's term for the extent to which individuals have access to important societal resources such as food, clothing, shelter, education, and health care.
The movement of individuals or groups from one level in a stratification system to another.
The social movement (upward or downward) experienced by family members from one generation to the next.
The social movement (upward or downward) individuals within their own lifetime.
An extreme form of stratification in which some people are owned by others.
A system of social inequality in which people's status is permanently determined at birth based on their parents' ascribed characteristics.
A type of stratification based on the ownership and control of resources and on the type of work that people do.
Capitalist Class (or Bourgeoisie)
Karl Marx's term for the class that consists of those who own and control the means of production.
Working Class (or Proletariat)
Those who must sell their labor to the owners in order to earn enough money to survive.
A feeling of powerlessness and estrangement from other people and from oneself.
Karl Marx's term for the struggle between the capitalist class and the working class.
The value of all of a person�s or family's economic assets, including income, personal property, and income-producing property.
The respect or regard with which a person or status position is regarded by others.
According to Max Weber, the ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others.
Socioeconomic Status (SES)
A combined measure that, in order to determine class location, attempts to classify individuals, families, or households in terms of factors such as income, occupation, and education.
Relatively low-paying, non-manual, semiskilled positions primarily held by women, such as day-care workers, checkout clerks, cashiers, and waitpersons.
The economic gain derived from wages, salaries, income transfers (governmental aid), and ownership of property.
A level of economic deprivation that exists when people do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life.
A condition that exists when people may be able to afford basic necessities but are still unable to maintain an average standard of living.
Feminization of Poverty
The trend in which women are disproportionately represented among individuals living in poverty.
A reduction in the proficiency needed to perform a specific job that leads to a corresponding reduction in the wages for that job.
A hierarchy in which all positions are rewarded based on people's ability and credentials.
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