Podmed surgery1 T1.txt

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Podmed surgery1 T1.txt
2011-04-01 23:47:28
Podmed surgery1 T1

Podmed surgery1 T1
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  1. What is the most common scalpel blade size?
  2. What type of blade is common for nail procedures/tenotomy?
    Beaver blade
  3. What forceps are used for skin closure?
    adson rat-tooth
  4. What forceps are utilized for deep tissue handling?
    Adson brown
  5. What retractors are self-retaining?
    Weitland retractor
  6. What retractor is good for gripping bone?
    Hohman retractor
  7. What retractor is used for ankle surgery?
    Army/Navy retractor
  8. What forceps are similar to hemostats and have teeth on the end?
    Kocher traction forceps
  9. What saw RPM is common for podiatry?
    20,00 rpm
  10. How long should a patient abstain from food before entering the OR?
    8 hours
  11. Which is a better antiseptic for scrubbing: Iodine or Chloraprep?
  12. What is an egg crate used for in surgery?
    Reduce pressure around patient's bony prominences during surgery
  13. Which patient position is the best for surgery: Supine, lateral, prone, or trendelenberg
  14. What is the Trendelenberg position during surgery?
    table tilted so head is down
  15. Do incisions heal end-to-end or side-to-side?
  16. What does RSTL stand for?
    Relaxed skin tension lines
  17. Should you be parallel or perpendicular to the RSTLs?
  18. What should be the length of a skin bridge to reduce necrosis possibilities?
    >1cm (never less than 1cm)
  19. When is a DuVries incision made?
    Plantar fasciotomy
  20. What are the five hemostat methods? ((MCATT)
    • Mechanical
    • Chemical
    • Anatomical
    • Thermal
    • Tourniquet
  21. What is the diff b/t bipolar and monopolar thermal hemostasis?
    • Bipolar: current between tips of forceps
    • Monopolar: current through body, requires grounding
  22. What is the max time to have a patient in a tourniquet?
    1.5-2 hrs
  23. How long should a tourniquet be reperfused before acivating again?
    10 minutes
  24. What is the formula for limb occlusion pressure in adults and infants?
    • adult: Systolic pressure + 100 mmHg
    • infant: Sys pressure + 50mmHg
  25. What is the max tourniquet pressure for the thigh and calf?
    • thigh: 300mmHg
    • calf: 250mmHg
  26. What is the max tourniquet pressure for the ankle and thigh of an infant?
    • thigh: 200
    • ankle: 175
  27. T/F: You should not use a tourniquet in a sickle cell case?
  28. What is the chemical diff b/t an amide and an ester?
    • Amide: NH group
    • Ester: COOH group
  29. What organ metabolizes amides?
  30. Which is safer, amides or esters?
  31. What are the two most common amides used for anesthetics?
    • Lidocaine
    • Bipuvicaine
  32. What channel does the anesthetic block?
    Na channels so deploarization cannot occur
  33. Do charged or uncharged ions diffuse through tissue?
    uncharged (charge ions are repelled)
  34. Once an uncharged ion enters the tissue does it remain uncharged?
    No, it becomes charged
  35. T/F: Increased acidity increases uncharged ions in solution
    F: Acidity decreases uncharged ions in solution
  36. What is normal physiological pH?
  37. What happens to pH during infection?
    • decreases, more acidic
    • means less uncharged anesthetic
  38. Should you inject distal or proximal to an infection?
  39. What is the order of sensory loss after anesthetic?
    • pain-light touch-temperature
    • (motor and pressure conserved)
  40. What is the most common % of lidocaine?
  41. What is the most common % of bipuvicaine?
  42. What is the toxic dose of lidocaine and bipuvicaine?
    • Lidocaine = 300
    • Bipuvicaine (Marcaine)= 175
  43. Which anesthetic is more common for a post-op block?
  44. What is the common pre-op anesthetic mix?
    1% lidocaine and .25% bipuvicaine 1:1 mix
  45. What is the function of Epinephrine?
  46. What chemical is formed from esters that causes allergic rxns?
  47. What happens to needle size as guage increases?
    • Inversely proportional
    • **As guage increases, size decreases
  48. When do you do a digital block?
    Hallux/digit problem
  49. When do you do a mayo block?
  50. What three injections make a full ankle ring block?
    • Posterior Tibial
    • Deep Fibular
    • Sural
  51. What are five characteristics of sutures?
    • Strength/tension
    • Volume
    • Elongation
    • Flexibility
    • Monofilament/braided
  52. Why is a monofilament used?
    • Smaller
    • less friction
    • good for contaminated wounds
  53. Why is a braided suture used?
  54. What is a bad side of braided sutures?
    • Capillarity: binding of bacteria due to size
    • high rubbing friction due to size
  55. What are four characteristics of a good suture for infection?
    • Monofilament
    • uncoated
    • synthetic
    • non-absorbable
  56. What is the most common, braided, absorbable suture?
    Polyglactin 910
  57. What absorbable/synthetic suture is most commonly used for tendon repair?
    Poliglecaprone (monocryl)
  58. What is the day diff for absorbable/non-absorbable?
    • Absorbable = 60 days
    • Non-absorbable = >60 days
  59. What is the most common non-absorbable suture?
  60. What is the most common suture needle in podiatry?
    Reverse cutting
  61. What is an autograft, allograft and xenograft?
    • Autograft: same person
    • Allograft: same species
    • Xenograft: diff species
  62. What is the diff b/t a split thickness and full thickness skin graft?
    • split: epidermis and part of dermis
    • full: epidermis and all of dermis
  63. What are four common sites to take skin from for STSG?
    • Thigh
    • Buttocks
    • calf
    • arch
  64. What are two common graft bacteria?
    • B-hemolytic streptococci
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  65. What are donor sites for FTSG?
    • flexor creases
    • pinch grafts
  66. Which do you mesh, STSG or FTSG?
  67. What are the three stages of graft healing and their time?
    • 1) Plasmatic: 24-48 hours
    • 2) Inosculation: 48 hrs - 2 wks
    • 3) reorganization: 1 year
  68. What is the most common complication of grafts?
    Seroma: Swelling b/c the lymph and capillaries don't enter until the inosculation stage (48hrs - 2 wks.)
  69. What type of flap is used for mucoid cysts?
    Unilobed flap
  70. What sizes should the two flap be of the bilobed flap when compared to the debridment?
    • 1st: 75%
    • 2nd: 50% (90 degrees from first)
  71. What are the four History and Physical areas?
    • Neurology
    • Dermatology
    • Vascular
    • Musculoskeletal
  72. What does the PARQ method of H&P for surgery stand for?
    • Procedure
    • Alternative
    • Risks
    • Questions
  73. What are the 5 ws of Post-op fever?
    • Wind:12-24 hrs
    • Water: dehydration
    • wound: 5-7 days, infection
    • Walk: 3 days, DVT
    • wonder: drugs
  74. What is the most commoon antibiotic?