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What is the most common scalpel blade size?
What type of blade is common for nail procedures/tenotomy?
What forceps are used for skin closure?
What forceps are utilized for deep tissue handling?
What retractors are self-retaining?
What retractor is good for gripping bone?
What retractor is used for ankle surgery?
What forceps are similar to hemostats and have teeth on the end?
Kocher traction forceps
What saw RPM is common for podiatry?
How long should a patient abstain from food before entering the OR?
Which is a better antiseptic for scrubbing: Iodine or Chloraprep?
What is an egg crate used for in surgery?
Reduce pressure around patient's bony prominences during surgery
Which patient position is the best for surgery: Supine, lateral, prone, or trendelenberg
What is the Trendelenberg position during surgery?
table tilted so head is down
Do incisions heal end-to-end or side-to-side?
What does RSTL stand for?
Relaxed skin tension lines
Should you be parallel or perpendicular to the RSTLs?
What should be the length of a skin bridge to reduce necrosis possibilities?
>1cm (never less than 1cm)
When is a DuVries incision made?
What are the five hemostat methods? ((MCATT)
What is the diff b/t bipolar and monopolar thermal hemostasis?
- Bipolar: current between tips of forceps
- Monopolar: current through body, requires grounding
What is the max time to have a patient in a tourniquet?
How long should a tourniquet be reperfused before acivating again?
What is the formula for limb occlusion pressure in adults and infants?
- adult: Systolic pressure + 100 mmHg
- infant: Sys pressure + 50mmHg
What is the max tourniquet pressure for the thigh and calf?
- thigh: 300mmHg
- calf: 250mmHg
What is the max tourniquet pressure for the ankle and thigh of an infant?
T/F: You should not use a tourniquet in a sickle cell case?
What is the chemical diff b/t an amide and an ester?
- Amide: NH group
- Ester: COOH group
What organ metabolizes amides?
Which is safer, amides or esters?
What are the two most common amides used for anesthetics?
What channel does the anesthetic block?
Na channels so deploarization cannot occur
Do charged or uncharged ions diffuse through tissue?
uncharged (charge ions are repelled)
Once an uncharged ion enters the tissue does it remain uncharged?
No, it becomes charged
T/F: Increased acidity increases uncharged ions in solution
F: Acidity decreases uncharged ions in solution
What is normal physiological pH?
What happens to pH during infection?
- decreases, more acidic
- means less uncharged anesthetic
Should you inject distal or proximal to an infection?
What is the order of sensory loss after anesthetic?
- pain-light touch-temperature
- (motor and pressure conserved)
What is the most common % of lidocaine?
What is the most common % of bipuvicaine?
What is the toxic dose of lidocaine and bipuvicaine?
- Lidocaine = 300
- Bipuvicaine (Marcaine)= 175
Which anesthetic is more common for a post-op block?
What is the common pre-op anesthetic mix?
1% lidocaine and .25% bipuvicaine 1:1 mix
What is the function of Epinephrine?
What chemical is formed from esters that causes allergic rxns?
What happens to needle size as guage increases?
- Inversely proportional
- **As guage increases, size decreases
When do you do a digital block?
When do you do a mayo block?
What three injections make a full ankle ring block?
- Posterior Tibial
- Deep Fibular
What are five characteristics of sutures?
Why is a monofilament used?
- less friction
- good for contaminated wounds
Why is a braided suture used?
What is a bad side of braided sutures?
- Capillarity: binding of bacteria due to size
- high rubbing friction due to size
What are four characteristics of a good suture for infection?
What is the most common, braided, absorbable suture?
What absorbable/synthetic suture is most commonly used for tendon repair?
What is the day diff for absorbable/non-absorbable?
- Absorbable = 60 days
- Non-absorbable = >60 days
What is the most common non-absorbable suture?
What is the most common suture needle in podiatry?
What is an autograft, allograft and xenograft?
- Autograft: same person
- Allograft: same species
- Xenograft: diff species
What is the diff b/t a split thickness and full thickness skin graft?
- split: epidermis and part of dermis
- full: epidermis and all of dermis
What are four common sites to take skin from for STSG?
What are two common graft bacteria?
- B-hemolytic streptococci
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa
What are donor sites for FTSG?
- flexor creases
- pinch grafts
Which do you mesh, STSG or FTSG?
What are the three stages of graft healing and their time?
- 1) Plasmatic: 24-48 hours
- 2) Inosculation: 48 hrs - 2 wks
- 3) reorganization: 1 year
What is the most common complication of grafts?
Seroma: Swelling b/c the lymph and capillaries don't enter until the inosculation stage (48hrs - 2 wks.)
What type of flap is used for mucoid cysts?
What sizes should the two flap be of the bilobed flap when compared to the debridment?
- 1st: 75%
- 2nd: 50% (90 degrees from first)
What are the four History and Physical areas?
What does the PARQ method of H&P for surgery stand for?
What are the 5 ws of Post-op fever?
- Wind:12-24 hrs
- Water: dehydration
- wound: 5-7 days, infection
- Walk: 3 days, DVT
- wonder: drugs
What is the most commoon antibiotic?