BPS Exam 3

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BPS Exam 3
2011-04-01 22:51:21
Abby Elkins

Basic Public Speaking Exam 3 Vocabulary
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  1. the vocal and nonverbal behavior that a speaker uses in a public speech; one of the five canons of rhetoric
  2. a type of delivery in which the speaker reads the speech verbatim- that is, from prepared written text that contains the entire speech, word for word
    speaking from manuscript
  3. a type of delivery in which the speaker puts the entire speech, word for word, into writing and then commits it to memory
    speaking from memory (oratory)
  4. a type of delivery that is unpracticed, spontaneous, and improvised
    speaking impromptu
  5. a type of delivery that falls somewhere between impromptu and written or memorized deliveries. speakers delivering an extemporaneous speech prepare well and practice in advance, giving full attention to all facets of the speech- content, arrangement, and delivery alike. instead of memorizing or writing the speech word for word, they speak from an outline of key words and phrases
    speaking extemporaneously
  6. the relative loudness of a speaker’s voice while giving a speech
  7. a microphone that attaches to a lapel or a collar
    lavaliere microphone
  8. the range of sounds from high to low (or vice versa) determined by the number of vibrations per unit of time; the more vibrations per unit, the higher the pitch, and vice versa
  9. the pace at which a speech is delivered. the typical public speech occurs at a rate slightly less than 120 words per minute
    speaking rate
  10. a distinctive way of speaking associated with a particular region or social group
  11. the bodily activity of the speaker and the meaning the audience assigns to this activity
    body language
  12. a technique for creating eye contact with audiences; the speaker moves his or her gaze across an audience from one listener to another and from one section to another, pausing to gaze briefly at each individual
  13. a speaker who remains static, standing stiffly behind a podium, and so resembles a televised shot of a speaker’s head and shoulders
    talking head
  14. acts that create the perception of psychological closeness between the speaker and audience members
    nonverbal immediacy
  15. a speech whose goal is to influence the attitudes, beliefs, values, or acts of others
    persuasive speech
  16. a stated position, with support, for or against an idea or issue; contains the core elements of claim, evidence, and warrants
  17. the Greek rhetorician Aristotle used this term to refer to persuasive appeals to reason and logic
  18. the Greek rhetorician Aristotle used this term for appeals to emotion. Such appeals can get the audience’s attention and stimulate a desire to act but must be used ethically
  19. the Greek word for “character” According to the ancient Greek rhetorician Aristotle, audiences listen to and trust speakers if they exhibit competence (as demonstrated by the speaker’s grasp of the subject matter) and good moral character
  20. a classic model of human action developed by Abraham Maslow based on the principle that people are motivated to act on the basis of their needs
    hierarchy of needs
  21. a mode of processing a persuasive message that involves thinking critically about the contents of the message and the strength and quality of the speaker’s arguments
    cental processing
  22. a code of processing a persuasive message that does not consider the quality of the speaker’s message, but is influenced by such non-content issues as the speaker’s appearance or reputation, certain slogans or one-liners, and obvious attempts to manipulate emotions. Peripheral processing of messages occurs when people lack the motivation or the ability to pay close attention to the issues
    peripheral processing
  23. an audience of persons with an intimate knowledge of the topic issue, produce, or idea being discussed
    expert audience
  24. the link between a claim and evidence
  25. the declaration of a state of affairs in which a speaker attempts to prove something by providing evidence and reasoning
  26. supporting material that provides grounds for belief
  27. an argument that focuses on whether something is or is not true or whether something will or will not happen
    claims of fact
  28. an argument that addresses issues of judgment
    claims of value
  29. an argument that recommends that a specific course of action be taken, or approved, by an audience
    claims of policy
  30. logical explanation of a claim by linking it to evidence
  31. offering a cause-and-effect relationship as proof of a claim
    casual reasoning
  32. a statement that is based on an invalid or deceptive line of reasoning
    logical fallacy
  33. a logical fallacy that uses general opinion as its (false) basis
  34. a logical fallacy stated in terms of two alternative only, even though there are additional alternatives
    either-or fallacy
  35. a logical fallacy that targets the person instead of the issue at hand in an attempt to discredit an opponent’s argument
    ad hominem fallacy
  36. a logical fallacy in which an isolated instance is used to make an unwarranted general conclusion
    hasty generalization
  37. a logical fallacy in which the conclusion is not connected to the reasoning
    non sequitur
  38. a logical fallacy in which one instance of event is offered as leading to a series of events or actions
    slippery slope
  39. a logical fallacy suggesting that something is true because traditionally it has been true
    appeal to tradition
  40. a pattern of organizing speech points in which each main point addresses and then refutes (disproves) an opposing claim in a speaker’s position
    refutation organizational pattern
  41. a pattern of organizing speech points so that the speech unfolds as a story with characters, plot, and setting. In practice, this pattern often is combined with other organizational patterns
    narrative organizational pattern
  42. a pattern of organizing speech pints so that they demonstrate (1) the nature of the problem, (2) reasons for the problem, and (3) proposed solution(s)
    problem-cause-solution pattern of arrangement
  43. a five-step process of persuasion, developed by Alan Monroe, that begins with arousing attention and ends with calling for action
    motivated sequence
  44. a pattern of organizing speech points so that the speaker’s viewpoint or proposal is shown to be superior to one or more alternative viewpoints or proposals
    comparative advantage pattern