Neuro Exam2.txt

Card Set Information

Author:
cjharmon311
ID:
76745
Filename:
Neuro Exam2.txt
Updated:
2011-04-02 18:00:35
Tags:
Neuro Exam
Folders:

Description:
Neuro Exam2
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user cjharmon311 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What is the pupillary sphincter muscle innervated by?
    ciliary ganglion (contraction=miosis)
  2. what is the pupillary dilator muscle innervated by?
    superior cervical ganglion (contraction=mydriasis)
  3. presbyopia
    reduced ability to focus on near objects (because of reduced elasticity of lens with aging)
  4. what vessel supplies blood to the photoreceptors?
    choroid branches (branch of opthalmic artery, branch of internal carotid)
  5. what vessel supplies blood to the retina?
    central artery of retina (branch of opthalmic artery, branch of internal carotid)
  6. photopigment for rods?
    rhodopsin
  7. photopigment for cones?
    cone opsin
  8. Steps of phototransduction?
    • light activates rhodopsin (or cone opsin)
    • rhodopsin interacts with transducin and phosphodiesterase
    • conversion of cGMP to 5'cGMP
    • decrease in number of open cGMP-gated sodium ion channels
    • photoreceptors hyperpolarize as sodium ion channels close
  9. what happens when light hits on center cells on the center photoreceptors?
    • the cells depolarizes
    • (the opposite happens when the light hits the surrounding photoreceptors)
  10. what happens in off center cells when light hits the center photoreceptors?
    • the cell hyperpolarizes
    • (the opposite happens when light hits the surrounding photoreceptors)
  11. alpha cells
    • large size
    • also called ''m'' cells
    • input from rod and cone bipolar cells
    • large receptive field
    • mostly in peripheral retina
  12. beta cells
    • medium size
    • also called ''p'' cells
    • input from cone bipolar cells
    • smaller receptive field
    • mostly in central retina
  13. gamma, delta, epsilon cells
    • small size
    • also called ''w'' cells
    • not clinically relevant
  14. what controls diurnal rhythms?
    • SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus) of hypothalamus
    • receives projections from ganglion cells with melanopsin
    • target of retinal ganglion cells
  15. Function of superior colliculus?
    • target of retinal ganglion cell axons
    • helps control eye movements
    • sends projections to pulvinar nucleus of thalamus
  16. Function of pretectal nuclei?
    • target of retinal ganglion cell axons
    • involved in pupillary light reflex
    • receives projections from ganglion cells with melanopsin
  17. Function of LGN of thalamus?
    • target of retinal ganglion cells
    • vision
  18. magnocellular layers of geniculate nucleus
    • layers 1-2
    • large cells
    • input from alpha ''m'' ganglion cells
    • rod and cone input
  19. parvocellular layers of geniculate nucleus
    • layers 3-6
    • small cells
    • input from beta ''p'' ganglion cells
    • primarily cone input
  20. what are the contralateral nasal input layers?
    1,4,6
  21. what are the ipsilateral temporal input layers?
    2,3,5
  22. what vessel supplies CN II?
    • branches of opthalmic artery (of internal carotid)
    • central artery of retina (or opthalmic artery)-distal CNII
  23. what vessel supplies boold to the optic chiasm?
    branches of anterior communicating artery and ACA
  24. what vessel supplies blood to the optic tract?
    anterior choroidal artery (of internal carotid)
  25. what vessels supplies blood to LGN?
    thalamogeniculate artery (of PCA)
  26. what vessels supplies blood to the primary visual cortex and the medial optic radiations?
    calcarine artery (of PCA)
  27. what vessel supplies blood to the lateral optic radiations (including Meyer's loop)?
    branches of MCA
  28. occlusion of what artery results in macular sparing?
    calcarine artery (middle cerebral artery also supplies blood to primary visual cortex at posterior occipital region)
  29. what is stria of Gennari?
    • expanded outer band of Baillerger
    • wide layer IV
    • Brodmann area 17, striate cortex, V1
  30. location of cells in primary cortex?
    granule cell
    simple cell
    complex cell
    • granule: IV
    • simple: II, III, V, VI
    • complex: II, III, V, VI
  31. cell types in primary visual cortex respong to?
    granule cell
    simple cell
    complex cell
    • granule: concentric center-surround (spots, rings)
    • simple: simple (bars)
    • complex: complex (bars)
  32. Pathway of dorsal ''m'' stream?
    • alpha ''m'' ganglion cells
    • layers 1 and 2 of LGN
    • area 17 of occipital lobe
    • area 18 of occipital lobe
    • middle temporal lobe
    • area 7a of parietal lobe
  33. Pathway of ventral ''p'' stream?
    • beta ''p'' ganglion cells
    • layers 3-6 of LGN
    • area 17 of occipital lobe
    • area 18 of occipital lobe
    • area 19 of occipital lobe
    • area 37 of temporal lobe
  34. anopia
    visual field deficit
  35. hemianopia
    loss of one half of a visual field
  36. quadrantanopia
    loss of one quarter of a visual field
  37. homonymous
    deficit in the same part of the visual field for each eye
  38. heteronymous
    deficit in a different part of the visual field for each eye
  39. destruction of the optic nerve or retina leads to?
    ipsilateral blindness in one eye
  40. scotoma
    • deficit in visual field surrounded by normal vision
    • typically in the center of the visual field
    • irregular lesion of macula lutea
    • or compression of optic nerve
  41. detached retina
    • detachment of the pigment epithelium from the photoreceptor layer
    • if detachment more than a few days there can be permanent damage of photoreceptors from lack of blood flow
  42. bitemporal heteronymous hemianopia
    destruction of crossing fibers at optic chiasm (most commonly due to pituitary tumor)
  43. nasal hemianopia (right hemianopia, left eye)
    destruction of lateral aspect of optic chiasm (most commonly due to aneurysm of internal carotid artery)
  44. contralateral homonymous hemianopia (also called right homonymous hemianopia)
    • destruction of optic tract, LGN, optic radiation, or primary visual cortex
    • (for optic tract: most commonly from occlusion of anterior choroidal artery, for LGN: most commonly from occlusion of thalamogeniculate artery, for primary visual cortex: more complicated)
  45. macular sparing
    occlusion of calcarine artery (sparing happens because branches of MCA also supply posterior occipital lobe)
  46. contralateral superior quadrantanopia (left superior quadrantanopia)
    destruction of Meyer's loop
  47. pupillary light reflex pathway
    • retinal ganglion fibers
    • pretectal area nerve fibers
    • Edinger-Westphal nuclei
    • ciliary ganglia
    • pupillary sphincter muscle
  48. pupillary dilation reflex
    • hypothalamus nerve fibers
    • C8-T1 of spinal cord (symp. pregang.)
    • SCG (symp. post.)
    • pupillary dilator muscle (contraction)
  49. accomodation reflex (maintaining clear vision when shifting from distant to near point)
    • 1. convergance of eyes due to contraction of medial rectus muscles by nerve fibers from oculomotor nuclei
    • 2. pupillary constriction by nerve fibers from ciliary ganglia
    • 3. thickening of lens (contraction of ciliary muscles) by nerve fibers from ciliary ganglia
  50. stereopsis
    • depth perception,
    • lack of stereopsis: defect in formation of ocular dominance columns
  51. amblyopia
    abnormal visual stimulation during early developement
  52. strabismus
    deviation of one or both eyes
  53. congenital cataracts
    cloudy lens
  54. visual agnosia
    • inability to recognize object even though object is perceived
    • lesion in visual association cortex (Brodmann areas 18,19)
  55. prosopagnosia
    • lesion in right temporal lobe
    • patient can perceive a face and recognize it as a face but can not distinguish one face from another

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview