pharmacology

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Author:
sojialiu
ID:
76750
Filename:
pharmacology
Updated:
2011-04-02 22:45:53
Tags:
renal meds
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Description:
renal medication
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  1. urinary tract antiseptic
    inhibit the growth of bacteria in the the urine
  2. urinary tract antiseptics side effects
    • Sensitivity to light
    • Skin- pruritis, and rash
    • Seizures increased intracranial pressure
    • Blood- Leukopenia,thrombocytopenia, angioedema
    • Nitrofurantoin may discolor urine brown; this is not harmful and will disappear after drug is discontinued
  3. urinary tract antiseptic intervention
    • photo sensitivity hence advice patient to stay in door or wear long sleeve cloth that will cover the body
    • Take medication with food or milk to decrease
    • GI upset
    • Check renal and hepatic function before administering
    • Check urine pH before administration
  4. urinary tract antiseptics contrainticated
    • Patient who are hypersensitive to the medication
    • patient with megaloblastic anemia and folate defi­ciency
    • Renal disease
    • Liver disease
    • Seizure disorders
    • Avoid alkalizing fluids such as milk, fruit juices, or sodium bicarbonate that can make the urine alkaline
  5. Antispsmodics
    An antispasmodic is a drug that suppresses spasms.
  6. Antispsmodic side effect
    • Skin- hence can lead to heat stroke/exhaustion in hot weather
    • rapid heart beat
    • Urine retention
    • Urticaria Leukopenia
  7. Antispsmodic patient teaching
    • Because of decrease sweating-Instruct patient to be less physically active in hot weather
    • Do not use antispasmodics if patient suffer from Glaucoma or urine retention.
    • Drowsiness and blurred vision may occur; do
    • not operate machinery or drive a car
  8. URINARY ANALGESIC
    local anesthetic effect on urinary tract mucosa Used to relieve pain with urinary tract infections or irritation
  9. Phenazopyridine (Pyridium)
    a chemical which, when secreted into the urine, has a local analgesic effect
  10. Phenazopyridine (Pyridium) Side/adverse effects
    • Causes a distinct color change in the urine
    • Nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic
  11. Phenazopyridine (Pyridium) Nursing Teaching
    • Notify provider if yellowing of the eyes occur
    • May be used with antibiotics and should be discontinued after 2 days of antibiotic
    • Ensure renal and hepatic function
    • before use
  12. CHOLINERGIC AGENT
    They stimulate smooth muscle of the bladder (detrusor) to contract, which increases bladder tone and ability to initiate micturition (voiding).
  13. Bethanechol chloride side effect
    • On heart- Hypotension, dizziness, and fainting orthostatic hypotension
    • On gland-increase secretion of the gland
    • Flushing and sweating
    • Increased salivation
    • Increase tears from tear gland-lacrimation
    • GIT-increase peristalsis activities
    • Abdominal cramps
    • Nausea ,vomiting and Diarrhea
    • Bladder-Urinary urgency
    • Respiratory- Broncho-constriction leading
  14. Bethanechol chloride nursing intervention
    • Give oral dose on empty stomach
    • Alternate route is subcutaneous
    • Keep atropine sulfate available as an antidote
    • Change positions slowly, especially from lying to standing. Do not stand in one place for long periods, and lie down at first sign of faintness
    • Use caution in activities to maintain safety because of risk of blurred vision
    • Monitor for 1 hour after subcutaneous dose for early signs of overdosage
  15. Contraindications of cholinergic drugs
    • mechanical obstruction of GI or urinary tracts,
    • peptic ulcer disease
    • COPD
    • bradycardia
    • parkinsonism
    • hypoten­sion
    • av blockers
  16. HEMATOPOIETIC GROWTH FACTOR
    • Used to stimulate red blood cell (RBC) production
    • treat anemia of chronic renal failure
  17. HEMATOPOIETIC GROWTH FACTOR Administration considerations
    • Do not shake solution
    • Use only one dose per vial
    • epoetin may be given undiluted by direct IV as a bolus
    • dose or during hemodialysis
    • Rotate injection sites if given subcutaneously to
    • minimize irritation
  18. HEMATOPOIETIC GROWTH FACTOR
    Side/adverse effects
    • Hypertension
    • Headache
    • seizure
  19. hematopoietic nursing intervention
    • Blood pressure may rise during early therapy
    • Monitor for hypertension during period of increasing Hct
    • Additional heparin may be needed during dialysis
    • Headache is a common adverse effect
  20. MEDICATIONS TO PREVENT ORGAN REJECTION
    Cyclosporine
  21. Cyclosporine (Neoral)
    • An immunosuppressant that prevent the body from
    • rejecting the transplanted organ
  22. Cyclosporine (Neoral) Side effect
    Risk of infection – due to immunosuppressive action
  23. Cyclosporine (Neoral) Nursing Intervention
    • Oral administration is preferred
    • Blood levels should be monitored frequently
    • Administer prednisone concurrently
    • Instruct client to monitor for signs of infection
    • Avoid drinking grapefruit juice, which can raise cyclosporine levels, thus increas­ing risk of toxicity
    • Mix concentrated medication solution with milk, chocolate milk, or orange juice just before administration

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