Phil Unit 3 test

Card Set Information

Author:
upcpk
ID:
76752
Filename:
Phil Unit 3 test
Updated:
2011-04-06 18:01:48
Tags:
Philosophy rationalism perception plato john locke blank slate david hume Immanuel Kant science knowledge truth correspondence theory pragmatic interpretation aquinas
Folders:

Description:
lessons 12-17 questions/study material
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user upcpk on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Rationalism is the view that

    a. our knowledge of the univers comes through our senses
    b. we can discover basic laws of the universe through pure reason
    c. a rigid experimental method s needed to acquire knowledge of the universe
    d. knowledge of the universe ultimately rests upon authority
    • a. our knowledge of the univers comes through our senses
    • b. we can discover basic laws of the universe through pure reason
    • c. a rigid experimental method s needed to acquire knowledge of the universe
    • d. knowledge of the universe ultimately rests upon authority
  2. Empiricism is the view that

    a. our knowledge of the univers comes through our senses
    b. we can discover basic laws of the universe through pure reason
    c. a rigid experimental method s needed to acquire knowledge of the universe
    d. knowledge of the universe ultimately rests upon authority
    • a. our knowledge of the univers comes through our senses
    • b. we can discover basic laws of the universe through pure reason
    • c. a rigid experimental method s needed to acquire knowledge of the universe
    • d. knowledge of the universe ultimately rests upon authority
  3. European thought during the 17th century A.D., like that of the 4th century B.C. Greece, was marked by

    a. stability and widespread social acceptance
    b. simplicity and lack of imagination
    c. staleness and stagnation
    d. change, uncertainty, and perilousness
    • a. stability and widespread social acceptance
    • b. simplicity and lack of imagination
    • c. staleness and stagnation
    • d. change, uncertainty, and perilousness
  4. Geometry proved an ideal model for rationalistic thought since it

    a. yielded truths that appeared indisputable and certain
    b. was only known by a select few researchers
    c. relied only upon experience for its axioms
    d. was discovered by a Greek
    • a. yielded truths that appeared indisputable and certain
    • b. was only known by a select few researchers
    • c. relied only upon experience for its axioms
    • d. was discovered by a Greek
  5. Descartes uses the example of the was to demonstrate that

    a. ideas ultimately arise within experience
    b. some innate ideas are acquired from experience
    c. he could not be certain he was awake or dreaming
    d. we know physical or material objects through an intuition
    • a. ideas ultimately arise within experience
    • b. some innate ideas are acquired from experience
    • c. he could not be certain he was awake or dreaming
    • d. we know physical or material objects through an intuition
  6. Rationalists prefer mathematics and logic since these yield

    a. contingent truths
    b. personal truths
    c. necessary truths
    d. historical truths
    • a. contingent truths
    • b. personal truths
    • c. necessary truths
    • d. historical truths
  7. Most _____ believe that that basic principles of logic and math are innate.

    a. rationalists
    b. empiricists
    c. philosophers
    d. mathematicians
    • a. rationalists
    • b. empiricists
    • c. philosophers
    • d. mathematicians
  8. Truths based upon experience are said to be

    a. contingent truths
    b. personal truths
    c. necessary truths
    d. historical truths
    • a. contingent truths
    • b. personal truths
    • c. necessary truths
    • d. historical truths
  9. According to many rationalists, the only properties of an object that are objective are its

    a. mathematical properties
    b. visual properties
    c. acquired properties
    d. cultural properties
    • a. mathematical properties
    • b. visual properties
    • c. acquired properties
    • d. cultural properties
  10. Innate ideas are traditionally regarded as those ideas that we

    a. acquire through experience
    b. have independent of experience
    c. acquire on legitimate authority
    d. acquire through our culture and upbringing
    • a. acquire through experience
    • b. have independent of experience
    • c. acquire on legitimate authority
    • d. acquire through our culture and upbringing
  11. According to Plato, learning is best understood as

    a. being filled with ideas
    b. rote memorzation of new ideas
    c. remembering ideas one already possesses
    d. acquiring new ideas through the work of others
    • a. being filled with ideas
    • b. rote memorzation of new ideas
    • c. remembering ideas one already possesses
    • d. acquiring new ideas through the work of others
  12. In Plato's dialogue, The Meno, Socrates has a slave boy solve

    a. a puzzle about the nature of justice
    b. a mathematical problem
    c. a dispute over the nature of a fair wage
    d. the problem of freedom and slavery
    • a. a puzzle about the nature of justice
    • b. a mathematical problem
    • c. a dispute over the nature of a fair wage
    • d. the problem of freedom and slavery
  13. Leibniz's example of veins in a block of marble marking out he figure of Hercules was an attempt to illustrate the nature of

    a. Greek mythology in modern European culture
    b. the evolution of sculpture in European history
    c. the nature of innate ideas
    d. the power of empiricism
    • a. Greek mythology in modern European culture
    • b. the evolution of sculpture in European history
    • c. the nature of innate ideas
    • d. the power of empiricism
  14. T or F:

    Plato and Descartes were rationalists.
    True
  15. T or F:

    Descartes's assumed that "some evil genius not less powerfiul than deceitful, has employed his whole energies in deceiving me."
    True
  16. T or F:

    Most of the rationalists felt that the basic principles of logic and math could not be innate ideas in us
    False
  17. T or F:

    In the Meno, Socrates claims that ideas about geometry are remembered and must have been acquired at some time before we were born.
    True
  18. T or F:

    Leibniz completely rejected the theory of innate ideas
    False
  19. False Memory Syndrome & recovered memories
    believing fiction to be your past, making it up based on tales of others.

    recovered memories are those memories suppressed until something triggers the memory of it
  20. Rationalism
    the view that the mind has "innate" idea or powers and that by means of this knowledge, matters of fact or reality can be had independent of sensory input.
  21. Perception
    the processes of seeing, hearing, smelling, touching, and tasting; an observation made through these processes.
  22. A Priori
    pertaining to knowledge whose possession is logically prior to experience; reasoning based on such knowledge
  23. Rene Descartes
    - the role doubt / skepticism / example of the melting candle

    - clear and distinct ideas

    - innate ideas

    - "I think therefore I am"
    -was unsure of what he could call a definite truth - wax viewed perceptively changes. we must know other truths about the wax

    - there are no clear, dinstinct ideas

    - ideas present in mind since birth, but unobtrusively
  24. Empiricism is the view that

    a. the mind has certain ideas innately
    b. innate ideas are abstract entities
    c. all lefitimate ideas come from authority
    d. sense experience is the source of ideas
    • a. the mind has certain ideas innately
    • b. innate ideas are abstract entities
    • c. all lefitimate ideas come from authority
    • d. sense experience is the source of ideas
  25. According to John Locke, which of the following is a simple idea?

    a. a chair
    b. a color
    c. a blade of grass
    d. a single apple
    • a. a chair
    • b. a color
    • c. a blade of grass
    • d. a single apple
  26. According to John Locke, which of teh following is a comples idea?

    a. intense heat
    b. powerful pleasure
    c. a single desk
    d. the color yellow
    • a. intense heat
    • b. powerful pleasure
    • c. a single desk
    • d. the color yellow
  27. According to Locke's empiricism, there is a gap between

    a. simple ideas and complex ideas
    b. ideas and the material objects they are supposed copies of
    c. causes and their effects
    d. religion and justice
    • a. simple ideas and complex ideas
    • b. ideas and the material objects they are supposed copies of
    • c. causes and their effects
    • d. religion and justice
  28. For George Berkeley, material objects

    a. are what science studies
    b. can only be known indirectly
    c. are rare and difficult to know
    d. do not exist
    • a. are what science studies
    • b. can only be known indirectly
    • c. are rare and difficult to know
    • d. do not exist
  29. George Berkeley argues that an object is

    a. a something; I know not what
    b. a material thing
    c. always an illusion
    d. a collection of ideas
    • a. a something; I know not what
    • b. a material thing
    • c. always an illusion
    • d. a collection of ideas
  30. According to David Hume, ideas are distinguished from impressions by

    a.ideas being real while impressions are not
    b. impressions having more force and vivacity
    c. impressions being copies of ideas
    d. ideas being one and all complex
    • a.ideas being real while impressions are not
    • b. impressions having more force and vivacity
    • c. impressions being copies of ideas
    • d. ideas being one and all complex
  31. David Hume argues that causality was

    a. the constant conjuction between distinct events
    b. the necessary relationship between a cause and its effect
    c. the universal and eternal relationsip between natural events
    d. the mortar between events, as divinely designed
    • a. the constant conjuction between distinct events
    • b. the necessary relationship between a cause and its effect
    • c. the universal and eternal relationsip between natural events
    • d. the mortar between events, as divinely designed
  32. Our belief in an external, material world is, for Hume, the result of

    a. a rational analysis of the nature of a sense impreession
    b. a rational analysis of the nature of an idea
    c. a very likely cause given its effect, which is our experience
    d. custom and habit
    • a. a rational analysis of the nature of a sense impreession
    • b. a rational analysis of the nature of an idea
    • c. a very likely cause given its effect, which is our experience
    • d. custom and habit
  33. According to some contemporary philosophers, traditional empiricism resulted in skepticism because it treated experience or sensation as

    a. only being about the external world and not our internal world
    b.being "inside us," or occurring in some "inner theatre" of our mind
    c. a confused form of thinking
    d. requiring innate ideas
    • a. only being about the external world and not our internal world
    • b.being "inside us," or occurring in some "inner theatre" of our mind
    • c. a confused form of thinking
    • d. requiring innate ideas
  34. According to a contemporary empiricist like W.V. Quine, we learn the meanings of a language by

    a. correctly labeling ideas in our mind
    b. getting the correct label on specific objects in the world
    c. observing people's behaviors in specific situations while specific words are uttered
    d. studying dictionaries early in life
    • a. correctly labeling ideas in our mind
    • b. getting the correct label on specific objects in the world
    • c. observing people's behaviors in specific situations while specific words are uttered
    • d. studying dictionaries early in life
  35. A. occasion sentence
    B. not an occasion sentence

    I am answering a question in this booklet
    A. occasion sentence
  36. A. occasion sentence
    B. not an occasion sentence

    Force equals mass times acceleration
    B not an occasion sentence
  37. A. occasion sentence
    B. not an occasion sentence

    My pen is out of ink
    A occasion sentence
  38. A. occasion sentence
    B. not an occasion sentence

    The sum of the interior angles of a triangle equals 180 degrees
    B not an occasion sentence
  39. A. occasion sentence
    B. not an occasion sentence

    This page is rectangular
    A occasion sentece
  40. T or F

    Empiricism is the belief that all knowledge about the world comes from or is based ont eh senses.
    True
  41. T or F

    The British empiricists were Locke, Berkely, and Hume.
    True
  42. T or F

    Locke's primary qualities include color and smell, and his secondary qualities include size and shape
    False
  43. T or F

    Berkely denied that there are houses, books, trees, and cats
    False
  44. T or F

    Contemporary philosopher Barry Stroud argues that we have no way of checking to see what the real world might be like.
    True
  45. Empiricism
    the position that knowledge has its origins in and derives all of its content from experience
  46. a posteriori
    pertaining to knowledge that is empirically verifiable; based on inductive reasoning from what is experienced
  47. John Locke
    - blank slate
    - primary and secondary qualities
    - sense data
    - only experience can fill the "blank slate" no universal ideas

    - primary (measureable) qualities such as weight, size and shape are really "in" the objects we perceive. secondary qualities such as colors, tastes and sounds are not "in" the objects we perceive but are sensations in us that objects cause us to have.Primary quality experiences are reliable indicators of the outside world

    - images or sensory impressions
  48. George Berkeley

    - solipsism
    - "to be is to be perceived"
    - God as the ultimate "perceiver"
    an extreme form of subjective idealism, contending that only I exist and that everything else is a product of my subjective consciousness. (Berkely disagreed - God exists and He produces the sensations in my mind)
  49. David Hume

    - Radical Skepticism
    - Perceptions/Impressions/Ideas
    - Cause & effect unknowable
    Perceptions - contents of mind that are reduced to those given by sense and experience (take form in impressions and ideas. i.e. the pain you feel from hammering your thumb is an impression, the memory of what you felt is an idea)

    cause and effect is circular reasoning. we can only rely on past experience if the future will be like the past, but past experience is the only basis for thinking the future will be like the past
  50. Immanuel Kant attempted to phiosophically prove that

    a. empiricism was more tenable that rationalism
    b. rationsalism was more tenable than empiricism
    c. a synthesis between empiricim and rationalism
    d. a sythesis between empiricism and rationalsim was necessary
    • a. empiricism was more tenable that rationalism
    • b. rationsalism was more tenable than empiricism
    • c. a synthesis between empiricim and rationalism
    • d. a sythesis between empiricism and rationalsim was necessary
  51. According to Kant

    a. our mind shapes the world
    b. the world shapes our mind
    c. our culture shapes our mind
    d. our personalities give each of us our own special world
    • a. our mind shapes the world
    • b. the world shapes our mind
    • c. our culture shapes our mind
    • d. our personalities give each of us our own special world
  52. In Kant's view our mind provides

    a. structure
    b. content
    c. structure and content
    d. neither structure nor content
    • a. structure
    • b. content
    • c. structure and content
    • d. neither structure nor content
  53. Kant argued that a criterion for discovering teh formal structuring components of experience is

    a. a culture's religious concepts
    b. the a priori nature of some concepts
    c. the a posteriori nature of some concepts
    d. the personal importance of some concepts to an individual
    • a. a culture's religious concepts
    • b. the a priori nature of some concepts
    • c. the a posteriori nature of some concepts
    • d. the personal importance of some concepts to an individual
  54. To solve David Hume's skepticism regarding anyone ever proving that our experience of objectsthemselves outside or beyond experience, Kant made

    a. it apparent that all of Hume's skeptical arguments were written when Hume was only in his 20s
    b. all of our ideas innate
    c. the mind more of a tabula rasa than Locke
    d. objects conform to our expereince
    • a. it apparent that all of Hume's skeptical arguments were written when Hume was only in his 20s
    • b. all of our ideas innate
    • c. the mind more of a tabula rasa than Locke
    • d. objects conform to our expereince
  55. In Kant's view, the senses provide us with

    a. the content but not the structure of experience
    b. the structure but not the content of experience
    c. insight into the nature of the thing-in-itself
    d. only confused thinking and should nto be trusted at all
    • a. the content but not the structure of experience
    • b. the structure but not the content of experience
    • c. insight into the nature of the thing-in-itself
    • d. only confused thinking and should nto be trusted at all
  56. According to Kant, what remains beyondour understanding is

    a. the moral law
    b. an answer to Hume's skepticism regarding causality
    c. the ding an sich, or the thing-in-itself
    d. the formal structure of ordinary experience
    • a. the moral law
    • b. an answer to Hume's skepticism regarding causality
    • c. the ding an sich, or the thing-in-itself
    • d. the formal structure of ordinary experience
  57. A part of the traditional meaning of a priori is being

    a. necessary
    b. skeptical
    c. contigent
    d. sacred
    • a. necessary
    • b. skeptical
    • c. contigent
    • d. sacred
  58. According to some critics of Kant's views, his a priori concepts are actually relativized to

    a. age
    b. gender
    c. race
    d. language
    • a. age
    • b. gender
    • c. race
    • d. language
  59. Kant's philosophy is most closely identified with the

    a. Romantic age
    b. Age of Enlightenment
    c. Age of Uncertainty
    d. Age of Anxiety
    • a. Romantic age
    • b. Age of Enlightenment
    • c. Age of Uncertainty
    • d. Age of Anxiety
  60. For Wilhelm von Humboldt, a language embodies a

    a. meaning for labeling our ideas
    b. strictly a priori universal structure
    c. weltanshaung
    d. Koyannisqatsi
    • a. meaning for labeling our ideas
    • b. strictly a priori universal structure
    • c. weltanshaung
    • d. Koyannisqatsi
  61. T or F

    Kant rejected the view of knowledge now called transcendental idealism
    False
  62. T or F

    According to Kant, we need only reason, and not the sense, to know anything about the world around us
    False
  63. T or F

    Kant's revolutionary claim that the world must conform to the mind is often referred to as the Copernican revoution in knowledge
    True
  64. T or F

    The romantic philosopher Wilhelm von Humboldt vehemently denied that we construct the world according to the categories of our language that we happen to use
    False
  65. T or F

    The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis says that the structure of a language determines how a speaker of that language thinks
    True
  66. Transcendental idealism
    in epistemology, the view that the form of our knowledge of reality derives form reason but its content comes from our senses
  67. knowledge as constructed
    our knowledge begins with the senses (epmiricism) but the mind is a source of knowledge of universal laws (rationalists)
  68. "noumenal" vs. "phenomenal" worlds
    we perceive only the world as it has been constructed by the mind out of its sensations (the phenomena)

    we do not perceive the world as it is in itself (the noumena)
  69. Romantics on emotion and language as shaping how we know the world (von Humboldt)
    the mind constructs reality, but it does so not according to rational structures but according to its history, culture and language
  70. Francis Bacon advocated a method of science

    A. requiring specific hypotheses to be falsifiable
    B. Requiring scientific hypotheses to be inductively accepted authority
    C. requiring scientifc hypotheses to be inductively inferred from a collection of facts
    D. in which paradigms serve to define acceptable
    methodology
    • A. requiring specific hypotheses to be falsifiable
    • B. Requiring scientific hypotheses to be inductively accepted authority
    • C. requiring scientifc hypotheses to be inductively inferred from a collection of facts
    • D. in which paradigms serve to define acceptablemethodology
  71. An individual model of scientific method places a strong emphasis upon
    A. initial observation or collection of facts
    B. Attemptimg to disprove or refute a hypothesis
    C. Guaranteeing that one's work is in line wtih the overall scientific community's work
    D. the mathmatical description of a hypothesis
    • A. initial observation or collection of facts
    • B. Attemptimg to disprove or refute a hypothesis
    • C. Guaranteeing that one's work is in line wtih the overall scientific community's work
    • D. the mathmatical description of a hypothesis
  72. The inductivist model seems to make the role of the scientist too

    A. active
    B. passive
    C. lucky
    D. secular
    • A. active
    • B. passive
    • C. lucky
    • D. secular
  73. According to Immanuel Kant, a scientist should approach nature as a

    A. pupil
    B. neophyte
    C. tape recorder
    D. judge
    • A. pupil
    • B. neophyte
    • C. tape recorder
    • D. judge
  74. Karl Popper advocated a method of science

    A. requiring scientific hypotheses to be falsifiable
    B. requiring scientific hypotheses to be based upon accepted authority
    C. requiring scientific hypotheses to be inductively inferred from a collection of facts
    D. in which paradigms serve to define acceptable methodology
    • A. requiring scientific hypotheses to be falsifiable
    • B. requiring scientific hypotheses to be based upon accepted authority
    • C. requiring scientific hypotheses to be inductively inferred from a collection of facts
    • D. in which paradigms serve to define acceptable methodology
  75. Thomas Kuhn advocated a method of science

    A. requiring scientific hypotheses to be falsifiable
    B. requiring scientific hypotheses to be based upon accepted authority
    C. requiring scientific hypotheses to be inductively inferred from a collection of facts
    D. in which paradigms serve to define acceptable methodology
    • A. requiring scientific hypotheses to be falsifiable
    • B. requiring scientific hypotheses to be based upon accepted authority
    • C. requiring scientific hypotheses to be inductively inferred from a collection of facts
    • D. in which paradigms serve to define acceptable methodology
  76. A. paradigm shifts
    B. not paradigm shifts

    Copernicus's heliocentric theory of the solar system versus the geocentric theory
    A. paradigm shifts
  77. A. paradigm shifts
    B. not paradigm shifts

    Darwin's theory of evolution versus the theory of creationism
    A. paradigm shifts
  78. A. paradigm shifts
    B. not paradigm shifts

    The discovery of a gene for Alzheimer's disease
    B. Not paradigm shifts
  79. A. paradigm shifts
    B. not paradigm shifts

    The discovery that the universe is cloeser to 15 billion than 12 billion years old
    B. Not paradigm shifts
  80. According to Thomas Kuhn, normal science occurs when scientists

    A. are not having to deal with erratic funding sources
    B. are not having to deal with theories like astrology or phrenology
    C. work out the various details of the dominant paradigm
    D. go about their business setting up reputable experiments and controlling all of the pertinent variables
    • A. are not having to deal with erratic funding sources
    • B. are not having to deal with theories like astrology or phrenology
    • C. work out the various details of the dominant paradigm
    • D. go about their business setting up reputable experiments and controlling all of the pertinent variables
  81. If scientific paradigms are genuinely incommensurable then

    A. progress in science may be an illusion
    B. progress in science is real
    C. the insights of a scientific paradigm constitute insight into the ultimate nature of reality
    D. only the social sciences mark progress
    • A. progress in science may be an illusion
    • B. progress in science is real
    • C. the insights of a scientific paradigm constitute insight into the ultimate nature of reality
    • D. only the social sciences mark progress
  82. T or F:

    Francis Bacon and John Stuart Mill claimed that induction is the primary tool of the scientific method.
    True
  83. T or F:

    The way that Gregor Mendel developed his laws of heredity is a good example of inductionism
    True
  84. T or F:

    William Whewell, an opponent of Mill, claimed that great scientific advances occur when scientists make a creative guess or hypothesis
    True
  85. T or F:

    According to Kant, the mark of science is that it tries to disprove or falsify proposed theories
    False
  86. T or F:

    Kuhn claims that scientists often continue to hold on to a theory even if some observations show up that do not fit into the theory.
    True
  87. Inductive Reason
    (induction) - the process of reasoning to probable explanations or judgments
  88. Karl Popper (falsifiability)
    Popper agreed that scientific theories are not mere generalizations from experience, but claimed scientific hypotheses must be capable of being falsified through empirical observation.
  89. Hypothesis
    in general, an assumption, statement, or theory of explanation, the truth of which is under investigation
  90. Scientific method (3 characteristics)
    • 1) it is based on sense observation and rationality
    • 2) it relies on the inductive method for its low-level laws
    • 3) it proceeds by formulating hypotheses that can guide research
    • 4) that are falsifiable
    • 5) and that are widely accepted in the community of scientists and
    • 6) its theories are accurate, consistent with other accepted theories, broad, simple and fruitful
  91. pseudoscience (characteristics)
    grab-bag theories (tabloids)
  92. Thomas Kuhn (paradigms, revolutions)
    argued that science is a social activity in which a community of scientists accept a "paradigm" consisting of theories and methods of discovery and proff, which are periodically overturned by scietific revolutions that establish new paradigms
  93. Frances Bacon
    (unlike many contemporaries) refused to simply accept without question the views of nature handed down fromthe ancient Greeks

    should investigate nature by careful observation and experimentation
  94. Two theories of truth discussed in this episode were

    A. empiricism and rationalism
    B. empiricism and transcendetal idealism
    C. corresponedce and coherence
    D. Conceptual and categorical
    • A. empiricism and rationalism
    • B. empiricism and transcendetal idealism
    • C. corresponedce and coherence
    • D. Conceptual and categorical
  95. According to the correspondence theory of truth, a true belief or statement

    A. accurately reports some aspect of reality
    B. fits in with other beliefs or statements
    C. has some usefulness or reliability
    D. is indubitable
    • A. accurately reports some aspect of reality
    • B. fits in with other beliefs or statements
    • C. has some usefulness or reliability
    • D. is indubitable
  96. According to the coherence theory of truth, a true belief or statement

    A. accurately reports some aspect of reality
    B. fits in with other beliefs or statements
    C. has someusefulness or reliability
    D. is indubitable
    • A. accurately reports some aspect of reality
    • B. fits in with other beliefs or statements
    • C. has someusefulness or reliability
    • D. is indubitable
  97. According to the pragmatic theory of truth, a true belief or statement

    A. accurately reports some aspect of reality
    B. fits in with other beliefs or statements
    C. has someusefulness or reliability
    D. is indubitable
    • A. accurately reports some aspect of reality
    • B. fits in with other beliefs or statements
    • C. has some usefulness or reliability
    • D. is indubitable
  98. Scientific realists tend to adopt the

    A. correspondence theory of truth
    B. coherence theory of truth
    C. pragmatic theory of truth
    • A. correspondence theory of truth
    • B. coherence theory of truth
    • C. pragmatic theory of truth
  99. Conceptual relativism is a version of

    A. correspondence theory of truth
    B. coherence theory of truth
    C. pragmatic theory of truth
    • A. correspondence theory of truth
    • B. coherence theory of truth
    • C. pragmatic theory of truth
  100. Instrumentalism is a version of

    A. correspondence theory of truth
    B. coherence theory of truth
    C. pragmatic theory of truth
    • A. correspondence theory of truth
    • B. coherence theory of truth
    • C. pragmatic theory of truth
  101. Albert Einstein took a/an

    A. realist's view of the truth in science
    B. consensus theorist's view of truth in science
    C. instrumentalist's view of truth in science
    • A. realist's view of the truth in science
    • B. consensus theorist's view of truth in science
    • C. instrumentalist's view of truth in science
  102. Neils Bohr took a/an

    A. realist's view of the truth in science
    B. consensus theorist's view of truth in science
    C. instrumentalist's view of truth in science
    • A. realist's view of the truth in science
    • B. consensus theorist's view of truth in science
    • C. instrumentalist's view of truth in science
  103. Karl Popper took a/an

    A. realist's view of the truth in science
    B. consensus theorist's view of truth in science
    C. instrumentalist's view of truth in science
    • A. realist's view of the truth in science
    • B. consensus theorist's view of truth in science
    • C. instrumentalist's view of truth in science
  104. Thomas Kuhn took a/an

    A. realist's view of the truth in science
    B. consensus theorist's view of truth in science
    C. instrumentalist's view of truth in science
    • A. realist's view of the truth in science
    • B. consensus theorist's view of truth in science
    • C. instrumentalist's view of truth in science
  105. Quantum mechanics is the study of

    A. galaxies and black holes
    B. gravitation as it is effected by huge bodies like out sun
    C. effects upon space and time as one approximates the speed of light
    D. the very small such as the structure of atoms and subatomic particles
    • A. galaxies and black holes
    • B. gravitation as it is effected by huge bodies like out sun
    • C. effects upon space and time as one approximates the speed of light
    • D. the very small such as the structure of atoms and subatomic particles
  106. T or F

    Modern phiosopher Bertrand Russell held that a statement is true if it corresponds to reality
    True
  107. T or F

    The correspondence theory has problems explaining what a fact is
    True
  108. T or F

    According to the coherence throy of truth, a statement is true if it is consistent with other statements that we regard as true
    True
  109. T or F

    The instrumentalist view of scientific truth is based on the correspondence theory of truth
    False
  110. T or F

    The realist view of scientific truth holds that true scientific theories correspond to the way the world is
    True
  111. Correspondence Theory
    (Bertrand Russell)
    theory contending that truth is an agreement between a proposition and a fact

    (a sentence corresponds to a fact when the relations among the words or constituents of the sentence mirror the relations among the terms or parts of a fact)
  112. Coherence Theory
    (Brand Blanshard)
    theory contending that truth is a property of a related group of consistent statements

    (we can verify a statement only by using other statemtents)
  113. Instrumentalist View
    in epistemology, the view that scientific theories can be true only in the sense that they enable us accurately to predict what will happen and that any unobservable entities postulated by the theory do not literally exist
  114. Realistic View
    the view that scientific theories are literally true or false and that the unobservable entities postulate in a scientific theory really exist if the theory is true
  115. Conceptualist Relativist View
    the view that a true scientific theory is nothing more than a theory that coheres with the conceptual framework accepted by a community of scientists
  116. Pragmatic Theory- of truth
    (Pierce, Dewey, James)
    there are no absolute and unchanging truths; a statement is true if it is useful to believe - that is, if it aids us individually or collectively in the struggle for survival, if it passes the tests of science or if it meets the need and intersets of our human nature
  117. Hermeneutics is the branch of philosophy which focuses upon

    A. ultimate nature of reality
    B. theories of knowledge
    C. issues and problems regarding interpretation
    D. issues and problems regarding the distribution of social goods
    • A. ultimate nature of reality
    • B. theories of knowledge
    • C. issues and problems regarding interpretation
    • D. issues and problems regarding the distribution of social goods
  118. Hermeneutics gets its name from

    A. Hermits who wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls
    B. Hermes, the messenger god
    C. Hermenes, the ancient poet of Zybos
    D. the research method of hermeneology
    • A. Hermits who wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls
    • B. Hermes, the messenger god
    • C. Hermenes, the ancient poet of Zybos
    • D. the research method of hermeneology
  119. Historically, an alternatice method of interpretation as opposed to a literal interpretation of the Bible was

    A. divine interpretation
    B. secular interpretation
    C. antithetical interpretaion
    D. allegorical interpretation
    • A. divine interpretation
    • B. secular interpretation
    • C. antithetical interpretaion
    • D. allegorical interpretation
  120. The story of Persephone is told here to illustrate

    A. divine interpretation
    B. secular interpretation
    C. antithetical interpretaion
    D. allegorical interpretation
    • A. divine interpretation
    • B. secular interpretation
    • C. antithetical interpretaion
    • D. allegorical interpretation
  121. Martin Luther's conflict with the Catholic church was in part the result of

    A. Martin Luther's low pay as a parish priest
    B. the Church's lack of support for Luther's planned cathedral in Wittenberg
    C. disagreements over interpretations of the Bible
    D. an apparently rigged election, which kept Luther from becoming Pope
    • A. Martin Luther's low pay as a parish priest
    • B. the Church's lack of support for Luther's planned cathedral in Wittenberg
    • C. disagreements over interpretations of the Bible
    • D. an apparently rigged election, which kept Luther from becoming Pope
  122. Friedrich Schleiermacher claimed that to correctly interpret a text, one must

    A. know the text's historical context
    B. simply find some personal meaning in the work
    C. look to the theme of the work
    D. understand how informed, educated people react to the work
    • A. know the text's historical context
    • B. simply find some personal meaning in the work
    • C. look to the theme of the work
    • D. understand how informed, educated people react to the work
  123. Willhelm Dilthey's work is most closely associate with that of

    A. Aristotle
    B. Hans-George Gadamer
    C. Paul Recoeur
    D. Friedrich Schleiermacher
    • A. Aristotle
    • B. Hans-George Gadamer
    • C. Paul Recoeur
    • D. Friedrich Schleiermacher
  124. To know an artist's intention, Dilthey claimed you must

    A. almost relive or re-enact the artist's life
    B. actually give up the idea of being able to kow an artist's actual intention
    C. study the wrok of art itself very closely
    D. find the allegorical meaning in a work of art
    • A. almost relive or re-enact the artist's life
    • B. actually give up the idea of being able to kow an artist's actual intention
    • C. study the wrok of art itself very closely
    • D. find the allegorical meaning in a work of art
  125. Hans-George Gadamer emphasized
    the

    A. need for objective interpretations
    B. need to find an artist's true intentions
    C. ever present subjectivity in all interpretations
    D. lack of intention in speaking a language
    • A. need for objective interpretations
    • B. need to find an artist's true intentions
    • C. ever present subjectivity in all interpretations
    • D. lack of intention in speaking a language
  126. Historically, one method attempted for avoiding misunderstanding in interpretation was

    A. the creation of an ideal language
    B. universal literacy
    C. requiring people to spek more than one language
    D. having every educated person learn Latin
    • A. the creation of an ideal language
    • B. universal literacy
    • C. requiring people to speak more than one language
    • D. having every educated person learn Latin
  127. Witgenstein's early work claimed that the ideal language

    A. would clearly or exactly represent reality
    B. would be formal and mathematical
    C. would be essentially religious
    D. was a fiction since language is much too complex
    • A. would clearly or exactly represent reality
    • B. would be formal and mathematical
    • C. would be essentially religious
    • D. was a fiction since language is much too complex
  128. Wittgenstein's later view of language is most clearly capture in the notion of language

    A. as a picture
    B. as emotional expression
    C. labeling ideas
    D. as a game
    • A. as a picture
    • B. as emotional expression
    • C. labeling ideas
    • D. as a game
  129. T or F

    The question of whether interpretations are true is important when trying to find out what the Constitution requires
    True
  130. T or F

    Thomas Aquinas claimed that biblical texts have only a literal meaning
    False
  131. T or F

    Schleiermacher and Dilthey embraced the correspondence theory of truth
    True
  132. T or F

    Wittgenstein's early theory of an ideal language accepted the coherence theory of truth
    False
  133. T or F

    According to Gadamer, the true interpretation of a text is the one that best cohere with both the prejudices of our own culture and what we believe the text meant in its own culture
    True

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview