quiz #3- brainstem

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BPT
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quiz #3- brainstem
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2011-04-02 19:14:52
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neuroscience
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brainstem
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  1. What are the nuclei located in the midbrain and their associated cranial nerve?
    • oculomotor nucleus (motor of III)
    • Edinger Westphal (PSNS of III)
    • Colliculi/Pretectal Nuclei
    • Trochlear nucleus (motor of IV)
    • Red Nucleus
    • Substantia Nigra
    • Mesencephalic Nuclei (sensory of V)
  2. What are the nuclei located in the pons and their associated cranial nerve?
    • Motor V, PrV, MesV, SpV
    • Abducens nuclei (motor VI)
    • Facial nucleus (motor of VII)
    • Superior salivatory nuclei (PSNS of VII)
    • Cochlear nuclei (special hearing of VIII)
    • Vestibular nuclei (special balance of VIII)
    • Pontine nucleus
  3. What are the nuclei located in the medulla and their associated cranial nerve?
    • Inferior salivatory nuclei (PSNS of IX)
    • Nucleus Ambiguus (motor of IX & X)
    • Hypoglossal nuclei (motor of XII)
    • Accessory nuclei (motor (XI)
    • Vestibular nuclei (special balance of VIII)
    • Solitary nuclei
    • Spinal Trigeminal (sensory of V)
    • Inferior olivary nuclei
  4. What lies in the basis?
    • (anterior 1/3 of BS)
    • corticofugal pathways
    • motor nuclei (substantia nigra, pontine)
    • pontocerebellar pathways
  5. What lies in the tegmentum?
    • (basis --> 4th ventricle)
    • reticular formation
    • sensory nuclei & ascending sensory tracts
    • cranial nerve nuclei
  6. What is modulated by the reticular formation?
    • pain
    • muscle tone and reflexes
    • autonomic functions (BP, respiration)
    • arousal
    • awareness
    • attention
  7. What are the three major regions of the reticular formation?
    • midline (raphe) nuclei
    • medial zone of reticular formation
    • lateral zone of reticular formation
  8. What does the midline raphe nuclei regulate and which are ascending and descending pathways?
    • regulate pain: ascending
    • regulate sleep and arousal: descending
  9. What is the motor regulated part of the parasagittal midline nuclei and what do they do?
    • Medial reticulospinal tract: facilitates extensors
    • Lateral reticulospinal tract: inhibits spinal motor neurons
    • (also has autonomic regulation)
  10. What do the parasagittal lateral nuclei do?
    • receive extensive sensory inputs from both ascending/descending pathways
    • project to parasagittal medial nuclei for output/motor response
  11. What neurotransmitter does the ventral tegmental area use and for what purpose?
    • dopamine
    • motivation and decision making
  12. What neurotransmitter does the peunculopontine nucleus use and where does it project?
    • acetylcholine
    • projects to BS motor nuclei (VST, RST)
  13. What is the function of the locus ceruleus and medial reticular zone?
    • regulates attention
    • inhibits pain at SC level
    • regulates autonomic function
    • descending role in pain modulation
  14. What are the four general places for midline lesions?
    • corticospinal tract
    • corticobulbar tract
    • medial lemniscus
    • medial longitudinal fasciculus
    • reticular formation
  15. What does a midline lesion interfere with in the corticospinal tract?
    contralateral hemiplegia
  16. What does a midline lesion interfere with in the corticobulbar tract?
    • cranial motor nerve symptoms
    • mainly IV, VII, XI, XII
  17. What does a midline lesion interfere within in the medial lemniscus?
    contralateral positional and vibratory sense loss
  18. What does a midline lesion interfere with in the medial longitudinal fasciculus?
    ipsilateral loss of adduction and contralateral nystagmus
  19. What does a midline lesion interfere with in the reticular formation?
    disruption of BP, GI, respiration, arousal, sleep and muscle tone
  20. Where can lateral lesions occur in either the pons or medulla?
    • spinothalamic tract
    • spinal nucleus and tract of V
    • vestibular nuclei (in lower pons, upper medulla)
  21. Where can lateral lesions occur in the medulla only?
    • nucleus ambiguus
    • inferior cerebellar peduncle
    • descending sympathetic pathway
    • vagus nerve
  22. Where can lateral lesions occur in the pons only?
    • middle cerebellar peduncle
    • main sensory nucleus of V
    • facial nerve
  23. What does a lateral lesion (pons & medulla) interfere with in the spinothalamic tract?
    pain and tenperature sensation from the body (contralateral)
  24. What does a lateral lesion (pons & medulla) interfere with in the spinal nucleus and travt of V?
    pain and temperature sensation from the face
  25. What does a lateral lesion (pons & medulla) interfere with in the vestibular nuclei?
    control of head position and eye movement
  26. What does a lateral lesion (pons only) interfere with in the middle cerebellar peduncle?
    smoothness of movement
  27. What does a lateral lesion (pons only) interfere with in the main sensory nucleus of V?
    corneal reflex and discriminative touch infor from the face
  28. What does a lateral lesion (pons only) interfere with in the facial nerve?
    control of mm of facial expression
  29. What does a lateral lesion (medulla only) interfere with in the nucleus ambiguus?
    swallowing, vocalization
  30. What does a lateral lesion (medulla only) interfere with in the inferior cerebellar peduncle?
    smoothness of movement
  31. What does a lateral lesion (medulla only) interfere with in the descending sympathetic pathway?
    sympathetic control of face; causes Horner's syndrome
  32. What does a lateral lesion (medulla only) interfere with in the vagus nerve?
    digestion, ability to slow HR
  33. What does a anteromedial lesion (medulla and pons) interfere with in the corticospinal tract?
    fractionated movements
  34. What does a anteromedial lesion (medulla and pons) interfere with in the medial lemniscus?
    discriminitive touch and loss of proprioception
  35. What does a anteromedial lesion (medulla) interfere with in the hypoglossal nuclei?
    tongue movement
  36. What does a anteromedial lesion (pons) interfere with in the medial longitudinal fasciculus?
    adduction of eye past midline during lateral gaze
  37. Where can anteromedial lesions occur in the pons or medulla?
    • corticospinal tract
    • medial lemniscus
  38. Where can anteromedial lesions occur in only the medulla?
    hypoglossal nerve
  39. Where can anteromedial lesions occur in only the pons?
    medial longitudinal fasciculus
  40. Where can anterior lesions occur in the midbrain?
    • corticospinal tract
    • frontopontine tracts
    • oculomotor nerve
  41. What does an anterior lesion (midbrain) interfere with in the corticospinal tract?
    control of fractionated movement, face may be involved
  42. What does an anterior lesion (midbrain) interfere with in the frontopontine tract?
    defeecit should cause ataxia, but it's not visible because hemiparesis or hemiplegia prevents movement
  43. What does an anterior lesion (midbrain) interfere with in the oculomotor nerve?
    ability to move eye medially, downward, upward; also causes drooping upper eyelid, dilated pupil
  44. Where can a tegmental lesion occur in the midbrain?
    • oculomotor nerve
    • medial lemniscus, trigeminothalamic, & spinothalamic tract
    • superior cerebellar peduncle & red nucleus
  45. What does an tegmental lesion (midbrain) interfere with in the oculomotor nerve?
    ability to move eye medially, downward, upward; also causes drooping upper eyelid, dilated pupil
  46. What does an tegmental lesion (midbrain) interfere with in the medial lemniscus, trigeminothalamic, & spinothalamic tract?
    • discriminitve tactile
    • conscious proprioception
    • temperature and pain sensation from face and body

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