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What is the FM for map reading and land navigation?
What are the basic colors of the map and what does each color represent?
· Black: man-made features, ie. Roads
- · Red-Brown: All relief features and elevation,
- contour lines on red light-readable maps
· Blue: water features
· Green: significant vegetation
- · Brown: all relief features and elevation,
- contour lines on older edition maps
- · Red: classifies cultural features such as
- populated areas or main roads
- Other: special information
What are military symbols?
Figures used to represent types of military instillations, organizations and activities.
Where is the legend of the map found?
Lower left margin
What are contour lines?
Lines on a map connecting ground of equal elevation.
What are 3 types of contour lines?
How many mils are in one degree?
How many norths are there on a military map?
· True north
· Magnetic north
- Grid north
What shape are the contour lines that indicate a hill?
The contour lines form concentric circles, with the smallest circle representing the top
What shape are the contour lines that indicate a saddle?
What shape are the contour lines that indicate a valley?
U-shaped or V-shaped
What shape are the contour lines that indicate a ridge?
U-shaped or V-Shaped, with closed end pointing away from high ground
What shape are the contour lines that indicate a depression?
Closed contour lines with tick marks pointing to low ground.
What shape are contour lines indicating a draw?
U-shaped or V-shaped, pointing to high ground
What shape are contour lines that indicate a spur?
U-shaped or V-shapes, pointing away from high ground
What shape are contour lines that indicate a cliff?
Lines that are very close together
What shape are contour lines that indicate a cut?
Contour line extending the length of the cut, with tick marks to the road bed.
What shape are contour lines that indicate a fill?
Contour lines extending the length of the fill, with tick marks pointing to low ground.
What must be done to a map before it can be used?
Has to be oriented
What are 5 major terrain features found on a map?
What are 3 minor terrain features found on a map?
What are the 2 supplementary terrain features found on a map?
What is a map?
A topographical view of a portion of the earth’s surface drawn to scale.
What is an azimuth?
A horizontal angle, measured clockwise from a north base line, expressing direction.
What is vertical distance?
Distance between highest and lowest points measured.
What is a contour interval?
Vertical distance between adjacent contour lines.
What is the distance between grid lines on a combat map?
1 kilometer or 1000 meters
How many mils are in a circle?
Which north is used when using a military map?
Grid north when using a map, magnetic north when using a compass.
How would you hold a lensatic compass?
Away from metal, level and firm
Name 2 ways to hold a compass?
· Center hold method
· Compass to cheek method
Are topographic symbols drawn to scale?
What do topographic symbols represent?
Man-made and natural features
In military symbols, what colors are used for a map overlay and what do they represent?
· Blue: friendly forces
· Red: enemy forces
· Black: boundaries
· Yellow: contaminated areas
· Green: engineer obstacles
What is back azimuth?
180 degrees from the azimuth
How do you figure out a back azimuth?
180 degrees from the azimuth
What is a declination diagram?
Show the angular relationship between the 3 norths.
What is the general rule for reading military grid coordinates?
Right and up
How many sights does a compass have?
What is a benchmark?
Man-made marker showing points of elevation.
What are parallels of latitude?
Measured distance north or south of the equator.
What is an aerial photograph?
Any photo taken from an aerial vehicle.
What does UTM stand for?
Universal Transverse Mercator
The lensatic compass has a bezel ring; each bezel ring click is equal to how many degrees?
How many times would the bezel ring click if it were fully rotated?
Large cities on a map are represented by what color?
Name 2 ways to orient a map?
- Terrain association
What is the FM for Operational Terms and Graphics?
The arrow on a compass always points what direction?
What does the term FLOT mean?
Forward line of troops
What are the alternate colors on a map and what do they mean?
· Grey: alternate for brown
· Yellow: built up areas
· Pink: political boundaries
What is longitude?
Imaginary lines running north to south.
What is a topographic map?
Shows terrain and land forms in measurable ways as well as horizontal features of the positions represented.
What is a small-scale map?
1:1,000,000 scale or smaller, used for general planning a strategic study, large area little detail.
What is medium scale map?
1:1,000,000- 1:75,000 scale, used for operational planning, moderate detail .
What is a large-scale map?
1:75,000 or larger, used for tactical, administrative and logistical planning
What does the term intersection mean?
Finding an unknown point by citing 2 or more know points.
Why is a map so important?
Gives accurate locations, distances, heights as well as key terrain features, and concealment info.
What does the term resection mean?
Method of locating one’s position on a map by determining the grid azimuth to at least 2 well defined locations that can be pinpointed on a map.
If you find a symbol on a map that is unknown to you, where would you look?
How many scales are on a compass, what are they?
What are the 4 quadrants on a map?
· North east
· North west
· South east
· South west
What are the 3 elements for a land navigation process known as Dead Reckoning?
· Known starting point
· Known distance
· Known azimuth
What is the feature that makes the lensatic compass work well at night?
The dials and needles illuminate
What is a polar coordinate?
Locating an unknown point using an azimuth and distance from a known starting point.
What is the name of the map system the US uses?
On a lensatic compass there are 2 rings, an outer black ring and an inner red ring, what are they used for?
· Red: degrees
· Black: mils
Name 3 field expedient methods of determining direction?
· Shadow-tip method
· North star method
· Watch method
What is a contour level?
Vertical distance between contour lines.
The boarder around the edge of the map is called what?
Name the different slopes found on a map?
You must find at least how many known locations on a map and the actual ground in order to plot your location accurately?
At least 2
What are the 3 main map sizes?
Small, medium, large
What are 2 methods of measuring an azimuth?
Compass and protractor
How close will an 8 digit grid get you to your point?
How close will a 6 digit grid coordinate get you to your point?
What would you use on a map to measure actual ground distance?
The bar scale