Biology 202 Lab 10

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9spr
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76830
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Biology 202 Lab 10
Updated:
2011-04-02 20:27:30
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Class Mammalia
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  1. Integument
    • epidermis: thick and keratinized surface cells (filled with keratin and lipids forming a protective layer)
    • Basal Epidermal Layer: produces new epithelial cells
    • Dermis: much thicker than the epidermis. has blood vessels (temp regulation)
    • sebacious glands: secrete sebum to lubricate and water proof skin and hair
    • Eccrine/Sweat glands: temp regulation
    • mammal skin also includes: fat, hair and arrector pilli muscles (raise hair for temp and behaviour)
  2. Types of hair (2)
    • Guard hairs: long and course (with oil are weather proof)
    • Under Coat: short fine hairs for insulation (arctic mamals - carabou- have air filled hairs for extra insulation)
  3. Generalizations on support and locomotion
    • 7 neck vertebrae (cervical): except for sloths and manatees that can be elongated (giraffe) or compressed (wales)
    • trunk is divided into thoracic and lumbar regions: thoracic contain ribs for anterior organ protection and are articulated for flexibility. lumbar have interlocking processes for support at the expense of flexability.
    • sacral vertebrae are fused: advantageouse for locomotion (weight bearing) but bad for birth
    • last set of vertebrae contain caudal vertebrae: tails usefull for locomotion, thermoregulation , and balance. (apes instead have a coccyx)
    • Appendicular skeleton is rotated under the body: therefore the appendicular skelly bears the weight of the body. (muscle mass is proximal to move the legs which fight gravity?)
  4. Food aquizition
    • 2 sets of teeth in our lifetime: (milk teeth and adult teeth
    • heterodont dentition: teeth different shapes and sizes
    • homodont dentition: teeth all the same shape
    • secondary palate: seperates digestive and respiratory paths (allow baby to suck and breath)
  5. Digestion
    • ailamentary canal length based off of diet and phylogenetic history: (herbivores have longest as plants are poor in nutrition and are not easily digested)
    • Liver and Pancreas: allow for high metabolic rate and endothermic balance
  6. Respiration
    • bronchi branch into alveoli to increase surface area for oxygen exchange
    • unlike book gills lungs only have 1 opening to the outside so some air remains (35%) in what is called the ded space
  7. Circulation
    • 4 chambered heart
    • 2 circuits (systemic and pulmonary)
  8. Excrition
    • mammals have a metanephric kidney: modified for endothermy
    • glomerular capillary tuft: (bowmans capsule) modified to enhance increased blood flow and higher blood pressure.
    • parts: bowmans capsule, glomerulus, collecting tubule, loop of henle
  9. Sensory abilities
    • complex brain best at: vision , hearing, smell, and touch
    • ultrasound: used for echolocation, communication, and prey location (catacaens/dolphins, rodents, and insectavorous bats)
    • high sound frequencies give a better description than lower frequencies
  10. Reproduction
    • mammals are amniotes: 2 subclasses
    • Prototheria: contains extinct species and monotremes and theria (marsupials and placentals)
    • Monotremes: egglaying species (platypus)
    • marsupials are viviparous and have a simple placenta (placentals have a complex placenta/ rat is placental)

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