kma15

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Author:
frank22
ID:
76885
Filename:
kma15
Updated:
2011-04-03 00:13:10
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kma
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chapo 15
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  1. adrenals
    paired glands covering the superior surface of the kidneys; made up of the adrenal cortex, which secretes steroids, and the adrenal medulla, which secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
  2. antidiabetic agents
    insulin and oral hypoglycemics
  3. corticosteroids
    hormones produced by the adrenal cortex; they have anti-inflammatory action and suppress the immune reaction
  4. cretinism
    hypothyroidism occurring in infancy and childhood
  5. diabetes mellitus
    most common pancreatic disorder, characterized by an inability to use carbohydrates; insulin production is ineffective or not available
  6. diabetic coma
    unconsciousness caused by too little insulin accompanied by increased caloric intake, physical or emotional stress, or undiagnosed diabetes mellitus; also known as diabetic ketoacidosis
  7. gland
    specialized epithelial tissue that secretes hormones
  8. glucagon
    hormone secreted by the pancreas that raises the level of blood sugar; counteracts effects of insulin
  9. glucocorticoids
    adrenal corticosteroids that regulate the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats by body cells and have an anti-inflammatory effect
  10. glycogen
    form of glucose stored in the liver or muscles for release as the body needs it
  11. glycosuria
    glucose in the urine
  12. hormone
    chemical substance secreted by glands that regulates many body functions; each hormone has specific functions
  13. hyperplasia
    actual increase in the number of cells
  14. hyperthyroidism
    disorder caused by an increase and sustained release of thyroid hormones
  15. hypoglycemia
    disorder caused by an increase and sustained release of thyroid hormones
  16. hypothalamus
    portion of the pituitary gland linked to the brain; controls many body functions such as temperature, sleep, and appetite
  17. hypothyroidism
    disorder caused by a decrease in circulating thyroid hormones
  18. insulin
    naturally occurring hormone secreted by the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas in response to increased blood glucose levels
  19. iodine
    mineral needed by the thyroid to produce thyroxine
  20. islets of Langerhans
    made up of beta cells that secrete insulin and alpha cells that secrete glucagon
  21. ketoacidosis
    acidosis caused by a surplus of fatty acids (ketones) in the bloodstream; a complication of diabetes mellitus
  22. metabolism
    the rate at which cells produce energy such as heat and muscle strength
  23. mineralocorticoid
    hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that maintains normal blood volume and promotes sodium and water retention and urinary excretion of potassium
  24. myxedema
    severe and longstanding hypothyroidism; the term is often used synonymously with hypothyroidism
  25. oral hypoglycemics
    drugs that stimulate the beta cells of the pancreas to secrete insulin
  26. parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    hormone secreted by the parathyroids; regulates the calcium content of the bloodstream
  27. parathyroids
    four glands located behind the thyroid; secrete parathormone
  28. pituitary
    gland at the base of the brain, known as the master gland, that regulates many body activities and stimulates other glands to secrete their own hormones
  29. polydipsia
  30. polydipsia
    gland at the base of the brain, known as the master gland, that regulates many body activities and stimulates other glands to secrete their own hormones
  31. polydipsia
    excessive thirst
  32. polyphagia
    excessive hunger
  33. polyuria
    excessive urination
  34. somatotropin
    growth hormone secreted by the pituitary gland
  35. tetany
    muscle spasms caused by lack of calcium in the bloodstream
  36. thyroid
    gland below the larynx that produces, stores, and releases thyroid hormone
  37. thyroxine
    hormone secreted by the thyroid gland; regulates the speed of metabolism in body cells
  38. type 1, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
    disorder wherein there is an inability to metabolize carbohydrates as a result of insulin deficiency; insulin must be given for treatment
  39. type 2, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
    usually affects individuals who are obese and over the age of 35; insulin may be part of treatment

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