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Examples of Innate barrier defenses
- Low pH of sweat, vagina
1. Which leukocytes mature in the bone marrow?
2. Which leukocytes mature in the lymph tissue?
- 1. Granulocytes, monocytes, some lymphocytes
- 2. Most lymphocytes/plasma cells
What are the types of leukocytes and their normal %?
- Neutrophils - 62%
- Lymphocytes - 30%
- Monocytes - 5.3%
- Eosinophils - 2.3%
- Basophils - 0.4%
What is diapedesis?
Process by which neutrophils and monocytes exit pores of blood capillaries to enter tissue spaces
What is opsonization?
Process by which phagocytic cells select targets: antibody binds to target, C3 molecules, which bind to receptors on phagocytic membrane
What is the fate of a phagocytic vesicle?
Fuses with lysosomes and other granules in the neutrophil, making it a digestive vesicle
Specific tissue macrophages and their locations
- Histiocytes - skin and subcutaneous tissue
- Kupffer Cells - Liver sinusoids
- Alveolar macrophages - Lungs
What are the characteristics of inflammation?
- Increased capillary permeability
- Clotting of interstitial fluid (often)
- Granulocyte, monocyte invasion
What causes invasion of neutrophils into an inflamed area?
Inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-1) produced by macrophages
What are the main roles of Eosinophils?
- Defense against parasites, helminthes (worms)
- Phagocytizing allergenic products
What is the main role of Basophils?
- Combat certain parasitic and viral infections
- Allergic reaction - Immunoglobulin E (IgE) produced attach to Basophils, causing release of histamine...
1. What is leukopenia?
2. What is leukemia?
- 1. Condition in which the bone marrow produces very few white blood cells
- 2. Uncontrolled production of white blood cells (often undifferentiated)
Describe the Acute Phase Response?
- Leukocytes secrete cytokines in response to bacteria
- Cytokines stimulate hepatic synthesis of complement components, fibrinogen, etc.
What produced Platelets? Where?
Megakaryocytes in bone marrow
1. Which cells are granulocytes?
2. Which granules do they contain
- 1. Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils
- 2. Nonspecific (azurophilic - lysosomes) and specific granules
1. Which cells are agranulocytes?
2. Which granules do they contain?
- 1. Monocytes, Lymphocytes
- 2. Nonspecific (azurophilic) granules ONLY
What are myeloid cells?
Granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages
What are the major functions of Monocytes?
- Processing/disposal of necrotic cells
- Phagocytosis of foreign bodies
- Initiation of immune response, presentation of antigens
What are the options for proteins defining forming vesicles in pinocytosis?
What is leukotriene B4?
A chemo-attractant for neutrophils, released by neutrophils