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Iontophoresis is the intro of medication ions into the human skin using a low voltage direct current
Iontophoresis Electrode Setup
- Uses a Monopolar
- Active electrode is placed over the target tissues
- Dispersive placed 4-6 inches away
- Dispersive should be at least 4 times the size of the active electrode
How does the Electrical Charge help get the Medication into the skin?
- Current carries ions between the two poles
- Primary entry in hair follicles and skin pores.
How much Electrical current is needed for Iontophoresis?
- The applied current must eb sufficient to overcome the skin/electrode resistance
- Must still have enought energy to drive the miedication through the skin's portals
- There is a decreased resistance to electrical current flow as treatment progresses
Amount of Ion Transfer
- The number of ions transferred through the skin is directly related to:
- Duration of the Treatment
- Current Density
- Concentration of the ions in the solution
What happens to the medicaion once it is in the tissue?
- Once in the tissue the medication is spread through passive diffusion
- No longer affected by the vurrent source
- Medication remains more highly concentrated in tissue directly under the active electrode
- Meausre in Milliamperes per minute (mA/min)
- Based on the relationship between the intensity and treatment duration
- DOSE ORIENTED TREATMENT
Types of Medication
- Anti-inflammatory: Dex-neg, Hydrocortisone-pos
- Analgesia: Lidocaine, Xylocaine-pos, Salicylate-Neg
- Edema Reduction: Hyaluronidase-pos
- Muscle Spasm: Calcium, Magnesium-pos
- Can mix different medication as long as they are the same charge
- Medication pentrates 6-20mm
- Local blood flow increases for 1hr after Rx.
- May have small bumps under electrodes post Rx
- With anti-inflammatory or anesthetic may take 24-48hrs post Rx for affects.
- Allergic reaction to the direct current.
- Will see a rash around electorde normally after 5min of Rx
- Expressed in mA-minutes
- Acute or chronic Inflammtion
- Myositis ossificans
- Myofascial pain syndromes
- local Anesthetic before injection
- Cardiac Arrhytima
- Over the Cartiod sinus area
- Hypersensitivity -strong adverion to electricity
- Certain types of catheters and shunts
- Known problemw with medicaiton used in treatment
- Most medication require a physician precriptions- pay close attention to any motes or instructions provided by the pharmacist
- The exact dosage of the medication delivered to the body is unknown
- Erthema under the electrodes is common after Rx
- DO not reuse electrodes becuase medication can remain in it
- To high of an intensity can cause burns
- Poor treatment techniques on the part of the therapist is most often respoinsilble for adverse reactions to ionto
Advantages of Iontophoreisi
- Bypass the liver
- Medication can be concentrated in a local area rather than be asorbed in the GI tract
- Less trumatic than injections
Disadvantages of Iontophoresis
- Unreliable results are obtained with certain medications
- In children the anxiety cuase by ionto was not significantly less than that of an injection
- cutaneous anesthesia derived from an injection is more toerable that than obtained through ionto
- Burns or severe skin irritation are problems inherent to the application of DC on the human body
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