Anatomy Chapter 28

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LaizyDaizy79
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77017
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Anatomy Chapter 28
Updated:
2011-04-11 23:07:19
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Human Anatomy
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Respiratory System
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  1. What specialty within medicine focuses on the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the lungs?
    pulmonology
  2. What is the approximate surface area with the lungs?
    equal to the area of a racquetball court
  3. What are the two anatomical divisions of the respiratory system?
    upper & lower respiratory tract
  4. What are the two functional divisions of the respiratory system?
    conducting & respiratory portions
  5. The nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pharynkx make up what part of the anatomical divisions of the respiratory system?
    upper respiratory tract
  6. The larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs make up what part of the anatomical divisions of the respiratory system?
    lower respiratory tract
  7. What bones form the bridge of the nose?
    nasal bones
  8. What are the external nares?
    nostrils
  9. What structure is the nasal cavity continuous with posteriorly?
    pharynx
  10. What are the openings between the nasal cavity and the nasopharynx?
    internal nares
  11. What is the regions of the nasal cavity near the nostrils?
    vestibule
  12. What structure divides the nasal cavity into left and right portions?
    nasal septum
  13. What skeletal elements make up the nasal septum?
    septal nasal cartilage, perpendicular plate of the ethmoid & vomer
  14. What are the three bony projections on the lateral walls of the nasal cavity?
    superior, middle & inferior nasal conchae
  15. What is another name for the nasal conchae?
    turbinate bones
  16. List the paranasal sinuses.
    frontal, ethmoidal, sphenoidal & maxillary sinuses
  17. What type of tissue lines the paranasal sinuses and thenasal cavity?
    pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
  18. What type of tissue lines the nasal vestibule?
    keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  19. What is the funnel-shaped region that connects the nasal cavity and oral cavity to the larynx and the esophagus?
    pharynx
  20. What region of the pharynx is posterior to the nasal cavity and superior to the soft palate?
    nasopharynx
  21. What type of tissue lines the nasopharynx?
    pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
  22. How is the middle ear cavity related to the nasopharynx?
    auditory tubes open into nasopharynx
  23. What lymphatic structure lies within the nasopharynx?
    pharyngeal tonsils or adenoids
  24. What region of the pharynx lies between the soft palate and the level of the hyoid bone?
    oropharynx
  25. What type of tissue lines the oropharynx?
    nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  26. What lymphatic structures lie within the oropharynx?
    palatine & linguinal tonsils
  27. What structures are surgically excised during a tonsillectomy?
    palatine tonsils
  28. What region of the pharynx lies between the level of the hyoid bone and the superior border of the esophagus or the level of the inferior border of the crocoid cartilage?
    laryngopharynx
  29. What type of tissue lines the laryngopharynx?
    nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  30. What type of tissue lines the superior portion of the larynx?
    nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  31. What type of tissue lines the inferior portion of the larynx?
    pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
  32. What component of the larynx forms the anterior and lateral walls and the anterior projection known as the larygeal prominence or "Adam's apple" in males?
    thyroid cartilage
  33. What ring-shaped structure of the larynx forms the inferior base of this organ and connects it to the trachea?
    cricoid cartilage
  34. What band of dense connective tissue lies between cricoid cartilage and the thyroid cartilage of the larynx and can be palpated?
    cricothyroid ligament
  35. What spoon- or leaf-shaped structure of the larynx folds over the laryngeal opening during swallowing to prevent food and drink from entering the larynx?
    epiglottis
  36. What is the opening between the vocal cords?
    rima glottidis or glottis
  37. What is the tubular structure that extends from the larynx inferiorly for 12 - 14 centimeters into the mediastinum?
    trachea
  38. What structure lies immediately posterior to the trachea?
    esophagus
  39. What structures keep the trachea patent?
    c-shaped tracheal cartilages
  40. What type of tissue lines the trachea?
    pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
  41. At what level does the trachea bifurcate?
    level of the sternal angle
  42. What are the bifurcations of the trachea?
    primary bronchi
  43. What is the most inferior, keel-shaped cartilage of the trachea?
    carina
  44. What is the highly branched system of air-conducting passages that originate from the left and right primary bronchi and branch into narrower tubes as they diverge throughout the lungs before entering the terminal bronchioles?
    bronchial tree
  45. Which primary bronchus is more likely to have foreign objects fall lodge in it?
    Why?
    • right
    • it's wider & steeper
  46. What airways within the lungs are less than 1 mm in diameter?
    bronchioles
  47. Within the lungs what are the small saccular outpocketings that provide surfaces for the diffusion of gases?
    alveoli
  48. What serous membranes cover the lungs and line the internal thoracic wall?
    pleura
  49. What specific serous membranes adhere to the outer surfaces of the lungs?
    visceral pleura
  50. What specific serous membrane lines the walls of the thorax cavity, the lateral surface of the mediastinum, and covers the superior surface of the diaphragm?
    parietal pleura
  51. What is the potential space between the layers of the serous membranes assocaited with the lungs?
    pleural cavity
  52. What is the general shape of the lungs?
    conical shape
  53. What portion of each lung is concave and lies on the diaphragm?
    base
  54. What portion of each lung is the superior, blunt end?
    apex
  55. How far superiorly does each lung extend?
    superior to the clavicle
  56. What portion of each lung is in contact with the thoracic wall?
    costal surface
  57. What portion of each lung is directed medially?
    mediastinal surface
  58. What portion of each lung is directed medially, oriented vertically, is indented, and is the area through which the bronchi, pulmonary vessels, lymphatic cessels, and nerves pass?
    hilum
  59. Collectively what are the bronchi, pulmonary vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves passing into each lung called?
    root
  60. What is the indentation formed by the heart within the left lung?
    cardiac notch
  61. List the lobes of the right lung.
    superior, middle & inferior lobes
  62. List the lobes of the left lung.
    superior & inferior lobes

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