Immunology 9

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jdonaldson
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7703
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Immunology 9
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2010-02-23 17:05:20
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immunology 9 usp james donaldson zink
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Immunology 9
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  1. True or False?
    As blood flows through a central artery of the spleen, it next leads to various capillary beds located in the red pulp.
    • False.
    • Central arteries open into the red pulp.
  2. What is the significance of central arteries opening directly into the red pulp?
    • The velocity of blood flow slows dramatically.
    • 1.) RBC's can be checked for repair
    • 2.) Immunogens and transformed cells move slow enough for antibodies to bind
    • Its a way to increase the odds of identification.
  3. By IMS direction, a dendritic cell intercepts a bacteria in the spleen and places an IDP on its surface. To where will the dentritic cell relocate?
    It will present the IDP to an appropriate TH0 in the PALS.
  4. How long will it take for an APC to find an appropriate T-cell in the PALS of the spleen?
    The rapid circulation of blood through the body (and therefore the spleen) means that one of the 6-20 appropriate T-cells for that epitope will be found very quickly, possibly within minutes.
  5. Where will an activated TH2 cell within the spleens PALS migrate to find an appropriate B-cell?
    The mantle layer of a follicle.
  6. When activated B-cells within the spleen differentiate into plasma cells and memory cells, where do the plasma cells relocate and release their antibodies?
    • The red pulp of the spleen.
    • Although some bacteria infiltrated the white pulp and caused an immune response, most are still circulating the blood stream and therefore the red pulp.
  7. True or False?
    The slow rate of bloodflow through the red pulp of the spleen allows antibodies time to "attack" their target immunogens.
    True.
  8. What is the fate of an antibody molecule that is not used in the red pulp?
    They enter circulation and attack their target immunogens throughout the body.
  9. Antibodies of plasma cells derived from B-cells have a half-life of ________, while antibodies of plasma cells derived from memory cells have a half-life of________.
    • 1.) 21 days
    • 2.) Months to years
  10. True or False?
    The spleen swells to accomodate immune cell proliferation.
    • False.
    • Except for mononucleosis, the spleen does not swell, as the white pulp tubes have room to expand into the red pulp.
  11. True or False?
    The white pulp tubes can only accomodate one immune response at a time.
    • False.
    • Multiple tubes of white pulp can each handle an immune response of their own, meaning many responses can occur at any given time.
  12. True or False?
    A given lymph node will swell to accomodate immune cell proliferation.
    True.
  13. Which of the following cells is not phagocytic?
    1.) Eosinophils
    2.) Macrophages
    3.) Dendritic cells
    4.) Neutrophils
    Dendritic cells.
  14. Which of the following cells is not an APC and therefore can't initiate an immune response?
    1.) B-cells
    2.) Macrophages
    3.) Dendritic cells
    4.) Mast cells
    Mast cells.
  15. What term describes a dendritic cell that resides in the skin?
    A langerhan cell.
  16. True or False?
    A lymph node is normally the size of a small pea and cannot swell in size.
    • False.
    • It can swell up to 5x in order to accommodate immune cell proliferation.
  17. Whatever is in lymph will eventually make it to the spleen because lymphatic vessels drain into the vasculature at ___________.
    The left and right subclavian veins.
  18. How many afferent lymphatic vessels enter a lymph node? How many efferent lymphatic vessels leave?
    • 5 afferent vessels.
    • 1 efferent vessel.
  19. If all materials in lymph ultimately make it to the vasculature (and thus the spleen), why do we need lymph nodes for additional filtration?
    Lymph moves too slowly (by muscular massage).
  20. What cells inhabit the following regions of a lymph node?
    1.) Cortex follicles and germinal centers (of reticular connective tissue)
    2.) Cortico-medullary region
    3.) Medullla
    4.) Medullary sinus
    • 1.) Dendritic cells and B-cells
    • 2.) TH0 cells
    • 3.) Macrophages
    • 4.) Plasma cells and CTL's
    • * the presence of CTL's make lymph nodes a dual organ (for a humoral or cell mediated immune response).
  21. True or False?
    Lymph nodes, like the spleen, contain trabecular scaffolding.
    • True.
    • The trabecular vessels allow leakage of immunogens into the various nodal compartments.
  22. How efficient are lymph nodes at filtration?
    Almost 100% in dog studies.
  23. What is the most understood type of MALT?
    Peyer's patches.
  24. Where are peyer's patches known to exist for certain?
    The small intestine. M-cells of the patches form breaks in the absorptive microviliated simple columnar cells.
  25. True or False?
    Peyer's patches somehow attract potential immunogens to their site.
    True.
  26. True or False?
    M-cells of peyer's patches destroy immunogens pulled from the small intestine.
    • False.
    • M-cells simply transcytose the immunogen into the peyer's patch, where dendrtic cells, T-cells, and B-cells reside.
  27. True or False?
    The various immune cells of a peyer's patch produce antibodies and even possibly CTL's.
    • True.
    • If an immunogen passes the mucous membrane of the SI, a peyer's patch can initiate an immune response at the point of entry.
  28. True or False?
    Peyer's patches are nearly 100% efficient at filtering immunogens from the small intestine.
    • False.
    • Since the SI's main function is absorption of nutrients from food, the peyer's patches must be dispersed through the lumen. Therefore, an immunogen can easily penetrate the mucous membrane where a patch does not exist. However, it will ultimately enter the bloodstream (innate defenses) and eventually the spleen (immune defenses).
  29. Up until the 1970's, which immune organs were believed to be vestigial organs?
    Adnoids, tonsils, and appendix.
  30. Although certain drugs now exist to allow us to retain our adnoids, tonsils and/or appendix, why must some individuals still have them removed?
    • 1.) They are immunologically incompetent to that immunogen (do not have the genetics to eliminate)
    • 2.) Body cellular structures irreversibly bound the immunogens and an autoimmune response ensued.

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