History Unit 4

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History Unit 4
2011-04-03 16:44:14

for the test on 4/4/11
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  1. What was the Compromise of 1850?
    A series of five bills that were intended to stave off sectional strife. Its goal was to deal with the spread of slavery to territories in order to keep northern and southern interests in balance.

    • bills: -California was entered as a free state.
    • -New Mexico and Utah were each allowed to use popular sovereignty to decide the issue of slavery. In other words, the people would pick whether the states would be free or slave.
    • -The Republic of Texas gave up lands that it claimed in present day New Mexico and received $10 million to pay its debt to Mexico.
    • -The slave trade was abolished in the District of Columbia.
    • -The Fugitive Slave Act made any federal official who did not arrest a runaway slave liable to pay a fine. This was the most controversial part of the Compromise of 1850 and caused many abolitionists to increase their efforts against slavery.
  2. What was the Fugitive Slave Law?
    passed by Congress after months of bitter debate in the US Senate in 1850. The law was seen as a compromise to preserve the Union.The law established commissioners to issue warrants for slaves who had run away and reached free states.The Fugitive Slave Act was opposed by abolitionists, and was one of the inspirations for the novel Uncle Tom's Cabin.Although the law was conceived as an effort to preserve the Union, citizens of southern states felt the law was not enforced vigorously, and that may have only intensified the desire of southern states to secede.
  3. Who was Dred Scott?
    an African-American slave in the United States who sued unsuccessfully for his freedom and that of his wife and their two daughters in the Dred Scott v. Sandford case of 1857. His case was based on the fact that although he and his wife Harriet Scott were slaves, he had lived with his master Dr. John Emerson in states and territories where slavery was illegal according to both state laws and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, including Illinois and Minnesota (which was then part of the Wisconsin Territory). The United States Supreme Court ruled seven to two against Scott, finding that neither he, nor any person of African ancestry, could claim citizenship in the United States, and therefore Scott could not bring suit in federal court under diversity of citizenship rules. Moreover, Scott's temporary residence outside Missouri did not bring about his emancipation under the Missouri Compromise, which the court ruled unconstitutional as it would improperly deprive Scott's owner of his legal property, when slavery was protected under the Constitution.
  4. What was the Kansas Nebraska Act?
    1854 created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed settlers in those territories to determine if they would allow slavery within their boundaries. The initial purpose of the Kansas–Nebraska Act was to create opportunities for a Mideastern Transcontinental Railroad. It became problematic when popular sovereignty was written into the proposal. The act was designed by Democratic Sen. Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois.
  5. What was Bleeding Kansas?
    a series of violent events, involving anti-slavery Free-Staters and pro-slavery "Border Ruffian" (Border Jumpers) elements, that took place in the Kansas Territory and the western frontier towns of the U.S. state of Missouri roughly between 1854 and 1858. At the heart of the conflict was the question of whether Kansas would enter the Union as a free state or slave state. As such, Bleeding Kansas was a proxy war between Northerners and Southerners over the issue of slavery in the United States. The term "Bleeding Kansas" was coined by Horace Greeley of the New York Tribune; the events it encompasses directly presaged the American Civil War.
  6. Who was John Brown?
    John Brown was a Northern abolitionist who raided the arsinal at Harper's Ferry to try and trigger a slave revolt on October 16. His plan failed and was captured on October 18 by General Rober E. Lee. He was tried for murder and treason, found guilty, and hung on December 2, 1859. South saw it as a threat and the first of many agressive attacks to come from the north. The Noth just wanted to bring the union back together. The South eventually seceded.
  7. Birth of the Republican Party.
    Founded in northern states in 1854 by anti-slavery activists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party quickly became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party. It first came to power in 1860 with the election of Abraham Lincoln to the Presidency and Republicans in control of Congress and the northern states. It oversaw the saving of the union, the destruction of slavery(stop the spread), and the provision of equal rights to all men in theAmerican Civil War and Reconstruction, 1861-1877.[1]
  8. Lincoln's Election
    set the stage for the American Civil War. The nation had been divided throughout most of the 1850s on questions of states' rights and slavery in the territories. In 1860, this issue finally came to a head, fracturing the formerly dominant Democratic Party into Northern and Southern factions and bringing Abraham Lincoln and the Republican Party to power without the support of a single Southern state. Hardly more than a month following Lincoln's victory came declarations of secession by eleven southern slave states, which were rejected as illegal by outgoing President James Buchananand President-elect Lincoln.
  9. Secession
    • The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 was the final straw for many southerners. In all 11 states seceded from the Union. Four of these (Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee) did not secede until after the Battle of Fort Sumter that occurred on April 12, 1861. Five additional states were Border Slave States that did not secede from the Union: Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia, Maryland and Delaware.
  10. Top 5 Causes of the Civil War
    1. Economic and social differences between the North and the South: south=1 crop economy; north=industries

    2. States versus federal rights: felt the constitution didn't allow states enough rights (say federal acts are unconstitutional)

    3. The fight between Slave and Non-slave state proponents: Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850, Bleeding Kansas, Border Ruffians/Jumpers

    4. Growth of the Abolition movement: Uncle Tom's Cabin, Dred Scott Case, John Brown Raid, F.S.A.

    5. Election of Abraham Lincoln: division among the nation
  11. Strengths and Weaknesses of the North and South
    • North: S- numbers, economy, industry, transportation, navy
    • W- military leaders, not home terf, no slave help; only white soldiers
    • South: S-"country boys", military leaders, cotton, home turf, quality soldiers
    • W- not enough people, block ports by union, lack of money, large front to protect, no real industry
  12. North and South Strategies
  13. 1st Bull Run
    (south) This was the first major land battle of the armies in Virginia. On July 16, 1861, the untried Union army under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell marched from Washington against the Confederate army, which was drawn up behind Bull Run beyond Centreville. On the 21st, McDowell crossed at Sudley Ford and attacked the Confederate left flank on Matthews Hill. Fighting raged throughout the day as Confederate forces were driven back to Henry Hill. Late in the afternoon, Confederate reinforcements (one brigade arriving by rail from the Shenandoah Valley) extended and broke the Union right flank. The Federal retreat rapidly deteriorated into a rout. Although victorious, Confederate forces were too disorganized to pursue. Confederate Gen. Bee and Col. Bartow were killed. Thomas J. Jackson earned the nom de guerre “Stonewall.” By July 22, the shattered Union army reached the safety of Washington. This battle convinced the Lincoln administration that the war would be a long and costly affair. McDowell was relieved of command of the Union army and replaced by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, who set about reorganizing and training the troops.
  14. Shiloh
    (north) As a result of the fall of Forts Henry and Donelson, Confederate Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, the commander in the area, was forced to fall back, giving up Kentucky and much of West and Middle Tennessee. He chose Corinth, Mississippi, a major transportation center, as the staging area for an offensive against Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and his Army of the Tennessee before the Army of the Ohio, under Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell, could join it. The Confederate retrenchment was a surprise, although a pleasant one, to the Union forces, and it took Grant, with about 40,000 men, some time to mount a southern offensive, along the Tennessee River, toward Pittsburg Landing. Grant received orders to await Buell’s Army of the Ohio at Pittsburg Landing. Grant did not choose to fortify his position; rather, he set about drilling his men many of which were raw recruits. Johnston originally planned to attack Grant on April 4, but delays postponed it until the 6th. Attacking the Union troops on the morning of the 6th, the Confederates surprised them, routing many. Some Federals made determined stands and by afternoon, they had established a battle line at the sunken road, known as the “Hornets Nest.” Repeated Rebel attacks failed to carry the Hornets Nest, but massed artillery helped to turn the tide as Confederates surrounded the Union troops and captured, killed, or wounded most. Johnston had been mortally wounded earlier and his second in command, Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard, took over. The Union troops established another line covering Pittsburg Landing, anchored with artillery and augmented by Buell’s men who began to arrive and take up positions. Fighting continued until after dark, but the Federals held. By the next morning, the combined Federal forces numbered about 40,000, outnumbering Beauregard’s army of less than 30,000. Beauregard was unaware of the arrival of Buell’s army and launched a counterattack in response to a two-mile advance by William Nelson’s division of Buell’s army at 6:00 am, which was, at first, successful. Union troops stiffened and began forcing the Confederates back. Beauregard ordered a counterattack, which stopped the Union advance but did not break its battle line. At this point, Beauregard realized that he could not win and, having suffered too many casualties, he retired from the field and headed back to Corinth. On the 8th, Grant sent Brig. Gen. William T. Sherman, with two brigades, and Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Wood, with his division, in pursuit of Beauregard. They ran into the Rebel rearguard, commanded by Col. Nathan Bedford Forrest, at Fallen Timbers. Forrest’s aggressive tactics, although eventually contained, influenced the Union troops to return to Pittsburg Landing. Grant’s mastery of the Confederate forces continued; he had beaten them once again. The Confederates continued to fall back until launching their mid-August offensive.
  15. 2nd Bull Run
    (south) In order to draw Pope’s army into battle, Jackson ordered an attack on a Federal column that was passing across his front on the Warrenton Turnpike on August 28. The fighting at Brawner Farm lasted several hours and resulted in a stalemate. Pope became convinced that he had trapped Jackson and concentrated the bulk of his army against him. On August 29, Pope launched a series of assaults against Jackson’s position along an unfinished railroad grade. The attacks were repulsed with heavy casualties on both sides. At noon, Longstreet arrived on the field from Thoroughfare Gap and took position on Jackson’s right flank. On August 30, Pope renewed his attacks, seemingly unaware that Longstreet was on the field. When massed Confederate artillery devastated a Union assault by Fitz John Porter’s command, Longstreet’s wing of 28,000 men counterattacked in the largest, simultaneous mass assault of the war. The Union left flank was crushed and the army driven back to Bull Run. Only an effective Union rearguard action prevented a replay of the First Manassas disaster. Pope’s retreat to Centreville was precipitous, nonetheless. The next day, Lee ordered his army in pursuit. This was the decisive battle of the Northern Virginia Campaign.
  16. Fredricksburg
    (south) On November 14, Burnside, now in command of the Army of the Potomac, sent a corps to occupy the vicinity of Falmouth near Fredericksburg. The rest of the army soon followed. Lee reacted by entrenching his army on the heights behind the town. On December 11, Union engineers laid five pontoon bridges across the Rappahannock under fire. On the 12th, the Federal army crossed over, and on December 13, Burnside mounted a series of futile frontal assaults on Prospect Hill and Marye’s Heights that resulted in staggering casualties. Meade’s division, on the Union left flank, briefly penetrated Jackson’s line but was driven back by a counterattack. Union generals C. Feger Jackson and George Bayard, and Confederate generals Thomas R.R. Cobb and Maxey Gregg were killed. On December 15, Burnside called off the offensive and recrossed the river, ending the campaign. Burnside initiated a new offensive in January 1863, which quickly bogged down in the winter mud. The abortive “Mud March” and other failures led to Burnside’s replacement by Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker in January 1863.
  17. Gettysburg
    (north) Gen. Robert E. Lee concentrated his full strength against Maj. Gen. George G. Meade’s Army of the Potomac at the crossroads county seat of Gettysburg. On July 1, Confederate forces converged on the town from west and north, driving Union defenders back through the streets to Cemetery Hill. During the night, reinforcements arrived for both sides. On July 2, Lee attempted to envelop the Federals, first striking the Union left flank at the Peach Orchard, Wheatfield, Devil’s Den, and the Round Tops with Longstreet’s and Hill’s divisions, and then attacking the Union right at Culp’s and East Cemetery Hills with Ewell’s divisions. By evening, the Federals retained Little Round Top and had repulsed most of Ewell’s men. During the morning of July 3, the Confederate infantry were driven from their last toe-hold on Culp’s Hill. In the afternoon, after a preliminary artillery bombardment, Lee attacked the Union center on Cemetery Ridge. The Pickett-Pettigrew assault (more popularly, Pickett’s Charge) momentarily pierced the Union line but was driven back with severe casualties. Stuart’s cavalry attempted to gain the Union rear but was repulsed. On July 4, Lee began withdrawing his army toward Williamsport on the Potomac River. His train of wounded stretched more than fourteen miles.
  18. Vicksburg
    (north) In May and June of 1863, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant’s armies converged on Vicksburg, investing the city and entrapping a Confederate army under Lt. Gen. John Pemberton. On July 4, Vicksburg surrendered after prolonged siege operations. This was the culmination of one of the most brilliant military campaigns of the war. With the loss of Pemberton’s army and this vital stronghold on the Mississippi, the Confederacy was effectively split in half. Grant's successes in the West boosted his reputation, leading ultimately to his appointment as General-in-Chief of the Union armies.
  19. March to the Sea
  20. Trent Affair
    reflected the uneasy state of international relations created by the war. The Confederacy hoped that England or France, even both, would come to its aid. The importance of cotton in the international marketplace was such, southerners argued, that the industrial powers of Europe could not long afford to allow the northern navy to enforce its blockade. The Trent affair was settled through diplomatic evasion and maneuvering, but the international situation remained tense throughtout the war. Leaders of both the north and the south could imagine situations in which england or france would intervene with the weapons and supplies, foreign intervention loomed as a fervent hope for the confederacy and a great fear of the north. Anger over the Trent Affair was balanced by resentment of southern assumptions about british dependence on cotton.
  21. Draft Riots
    violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination of discontent with new laws passed by Congress to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War. The riots were the largest civil insurrection in American history apart from the Civil War itself. President Abraham Lincoln sent several regiments of militia and volunteer troops to control the city. The rioters were overwhelmingly working class men, resentful, among other reasons, because the draft unfairly affected them while sparing wealthier men, who could afford to pay a $300.00 Commutation Fee to exclude themselves from its reach.
  22. Suspension of Habeas Corpus
    So he could hold suspected spies wihtout trial.
  23. 2nd Confiscation Act
    passed on July 17, 1862. It stated that the slaves of any Confederate official, military or civilian, who did not surrender within 60 days of the act's passage would be freed. However, this act was only applicable in Confederate areas which had already been occupied by the Union Army. All slaves taking refuge in Union areas were "captives of war" and would be set free.U.S. President Abraham Lincoln opposed these acts, believing that they would push the border states towards siding with the Confederacy. The growing movement towards emancipation was aided by these acts, which eventually led to the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863.
  24. Emancipation Proclimation
    It was a set of two executive orders, issued by President Lincoln, which freed the slaves in the rebel states and guaranteed the enforcement of their emancipation. It only applied to slaves in rebel-held areas. The passage of the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments after the war would permanently end slavery in America. The proclamation was effective in making sure that England and France would not support the south (and look pro-slavery), and in helping bankrupt rich southern landowners.Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_was_the_Emancipation_Proclamation#ixzz1IUh0Rvjh
  25. Confederate Slave Resistance
    When given the choice, slaves made it very clear that they wanted emancipation. The overwhelming majority of slaves, however, remained on their plantations in the countryside. Even then these slaves in the Southern interior found ways to demonstrate their desire for freedom. They did not stop working, but they did considerably less work than they had before the war.
  26. Effects on Region Economies
  27. Lincoln's Plan
    Lincoln tried to reestablish peace between the Union ("the north") and the Confederates ("the south"). He offered amnesty, or pardon, to all Southerners who pledged an oath of loyalty to the United States. When 10% of a state's voters had signed this oath, Congress would reinstate the state into the Union. He also urged that African Americans who could read and write gain the right to vote. Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_was_Abraham_Lincoln's_plan_for_reconstruction#ixzz1IUhwaQEn
  28. Johnson's Plan
    To offer pardon and amnesty to participants in the rebellion who pledged loyalty to the Union(unless that person was worth more then 20,000 dollars then they had to get pardon by the president himself) and support for the end of slavery.Designated William Holden as provisional governor of North Carolina and directed him to call a convention to amend the state's existing constitution so as to create a "republican form of government."
  29. Freedman's Bureau
    The "Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands" was a US government agency under the War Department following the US Civil War. It coordinated relief efforts and provided help to freed slaves in obtaining land and employment.As part of its programs, people from many different backgrounds worked to teach ex-slaves how to read, write, and improve their lives.Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_was_the_Freedmen's_Bureau#ixzz1IUiaEI5Z
  30. 13th Amendment
    abolished slavery and involuntary servitude; accept as a punishment for crime
  31. 14th Amendment
    extended the 5th amendment to states (duprcess)
  32. 15th amendment
    the US govenment cannot deny anyone based on their race, color, or history of servitude
  33. Black codes
    laws passed on the state and local level in the US to limit the civil rights and liberties of african americans.
  34. Lynching
    to kill especially by hanging
  35. KKK
    racist killers