MA 202 Phlebotomy Basics

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Shutrbug20
ID:
77047
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MA 202 Phlebotomy Basics
Updated:
2011-04-03 21:47:32
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Circulatory Lymphatic Immune Systems
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Chapter 2 Unit 7
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  1. Circulatory System
    • Transports O2 blood and nutrients throughout body and picks up metabolic waste for disposal.
    • Transports hormones, enzymes, and blood clotting factors also
  2. Hemostasis
    Ensures rupture in blood vessel is repairedquickly by clotting
  3. Circulatory System (2 large loops)
    • Pulmonary Circulation
    • Systemic Circulation
  4. Pulmonary Circulation
    Carries blood between heart and lungs for gas exchange
  5. Systemic Circulation
    Carries blood from heart to rest of body's tissues
  6. Arteries
    Carry blood away from heart (oxygenated)
  7. Veins
    Carry blood to heart (deoxygenated)
  8. Pulmonary Artery
    • Leaves heart from R ventricle
    • Deox blood
    • Going to lungs
  9. Pulmonary Vein
    • Enters heart in R atrium
    • O2 blood
    • Coming from lungs
  10. Atria
    Receiving chambers of the heart
  11. Ventricles
    Discharging chambers of the heart
  12. Heart Layers
    • Epicardium - outer layer
    • Myocardium - middle layer
    • Endocardium - inner most layer
  13. Epicardium Layer
    • Coronary arteries embedded in this layer
    • Feed heart
  14. Myocardium Layer
    • Cardiac muscle
    • Allows electrical activity to spread easily
  15. Endocardium Layer
    • Lines chambers of heart
    • Lines inside of vessels
  16. Paricardium
    • Thin membrane sac
    • Surronds heart
    • Supports and lubricates heart during contraction
  17. Aorta
    Largest artery in body
  18. Tricuspid Valve
    Right side of heart
  19. Bicuspid Valve
    Mitral Valve
    Left side of heart
  20. Right Side of Heart
    Receives deoxygenated blood
  21. Left Side of Heart
    Receives oxygenated blood
  22. Blood Flow Anatomy
    • Heart
    • Artery
    • Arterioles
    • Capillaries
    • Venules
    • Veins
    • Heart
  23. Heart Anatomy
    • Atria - (L&R Atrium) receives blood
    • Ventricles - (L&R) discharge blood
    • Tricuspid valve - separates R atrium from R ventricle
    • Pulmonary Semilunar Valve - separates R ventricle from pulmonary arteries
    • Bicuspid / Mitral Valve - separates L atrium from L ventricle
    • Aortic Semilunar Valve - separates L ventrical from aorta
  24. Heart Circulation
    • Deox blood from body to superior/inferior venae cavae
    • Empty into R atrium
    • Through tricuspid into R ventricle
    • Out pulm sem valve to L&R pulm arteries
    • To lungs for O2
    • Return to heart (O2) in pulm vein
    • Enters L atrium
    • Through bicuspid/mitral valve into L ventricle
    • Through aortic sem valve into aorta
    • Out to body
  25. Artery Characteristics
    • Surrounded by smooth muscsle that contracts
    • Can palpate with fingers
    • Found deep in dermis
    • Spet with pulse
    • Brite blood
  26. Arteriole Blood Gas (ABG)
    • Most common gas tested
    • O2 and
    • CO2
  27. Vein Characteristics
    • Contain less muscle than arteries
    • Found superficial to dermis
    • Bounce back when palpated (no pulse)
    • Steady bleed
    • Most common blood used for lab tests
  28. Capillaries
    • Smallest of blood vessels
    • 1 RBC thick
    • Where gas exchange occurs
    • If cut, oozes
  29. Artery / Vein Layers
    • Tunica Intima - inner layer
    • Tunica Media - middle layer
    • Tunica Adventitia - outer layer
  30. 3 Most Common Veins
    • Choice 1 - Median Cubital - best for anchoring
    • Choice 2 - Cephalic - thumb side, rolls
    • Choice 3 - Basilic - pinky side, bruises
  31. Longest Vein
    Sephenous Vein
  32. Formed Elements
    • 45%
    • Red blood cells 99% of
    • Less than 1% of
    • White blood cells
    • Platelets
  33. Plasma
    • Liquid part = 55%
    • Made mostly of water
  34. Erythrocytes
    • RBC formed in bone marrow
    • Live 120 days
    • Hemoglobin carry O2
  35. Leukocytes
    • Lymphocytes - most abundant in quantity
    • Monocytes - Largest in size (macrophage)
  36. Thrombocytes
    • Formed in bone marrow
    • Blood clotting
    • Fibrinogen
  37. Lymph Vessels
    • Closed ended system
    • 1-way
    • Start at capillary beds
    • Join venus system near superior vena cava
    • System is green
  38. Lymph Fluid
    • Found between cells (interstitial fluid)
    • Main transportation system for dietary fat
  39. Lymph Nodes
    Act as filter during infection
  40. Lymph Organs
    • Spleen - old RBC recycled
    • Thymus - maturation of immune system during developement
    • Nodes - chambers have lymphocytes screening lymph fluid for signs of infection
  41. Lymphedema
    Accumulation of interstitial fluid (blocked lymph vessel)
  42. Non-Specific Immunity
    • Defense against infection (no cell markers)
    • Types include -
    • Physical,
    • Phagocytes,
    • Inflammation
  43. Specific Immunity
    • Molecular recognition of cell markers
    • T-Cell - killer, memory, helper (cel mediated immunity)
    • B-Cell - antibodies (antibody mediated immunity)
  44. Autoimmunity
    Body kills self
  45. Allergy
    • Inappropriate response
    • Severe immune response
  46. AIDS
    Attacks helper T-cells (CD4/8)
  47. Anemia
    Decreased # of RBC or amount of hemoblobin in blood
  48. Polycythemia
    Increase in # of blood cells, especially RBC
  49. Leukemia
    Malignant neoplasm in bone marrow, cause increase in WBC
  50. Primary Hemostasis
    • Vascular Spasm - constriction of blood vessels to lesson bleeding
    • Platelet Phase - platelets stick to endothelial layer of vessel wall, more stick and so on (aggregation)
  51. Secondary Hemostasis
    Coagulation phase
  52. Blood Composition
    • Formed Elements - 45% of whole blood
    • 99% of is RBC,
    • <1% of is WBC and platelets
    • Plasma - 55% of whole blood
    • 90% of is water,
    • 10% of is solutes

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