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what are the four chambers of the heart?
- Right Atrium
- Right Ventricle
- Left Atrium
- Left Ventricle
what's in RA?
what is crista terminalis and where is it?
- ridge of the muscle that divides the atrium of two parts
- - located in RA
what are the two parts of the crista terminalis?
- 1. anterior (aka. auricle) - rough b/c of the presence of pectinate muscle
- 2. posterior (aka. sinus venarum) - smooth inner wall
where and what kind of blood does the sinus venarum receive from?
receives deoxygenated venous blood
from the systemic circulation
via the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus.
what is the interatrial septum and where is it?
muscular wall that divides the right and left atria from each other
what is the fossa ovalus? where is it?
former site of foramen ovale - allowed for communication of blood between the two atria during fetal development
within the interatria septum
what is the right ventricle?
area that sends deoxygenated blood into the pulmonary circulation (lungs)
what valves are in the RV? what does the first one do?
tricuspid valve (aka right AV valve) and pulmonary valve
guard the orifice btwn the right atrium and right ventricle
3 cusps (ant, post, and septal) to block the orifice when closed
what are the three papillary muscles of RV?
anterior, posterior, and septal
anchors for the tendinous cords
what are the tendinous cords in the RV?
- attaches to the three cusps of the tricuspid valve to prevent them from protruding excessively into
- right atrium
what is the Septomarginal trabecula (moderator band) in RV?
bundle of cardiac muscle that runs between the interventricular septum and the base of a papillary muscle
important for transmission/electoral conduction of heart
part of the conducting system of the heart
what is the supraventricular crest of RV?
divides the ventricle into an inflow part near the tricuspid valve, and a smooth outflow part or conus arteriosis
what does the pulmonary valve do?
guards the orifice of the pulmonary trunk with three semilunar cusps.
Constriction of the right ventricle causes deoxygenated blood to forcefully enter the pulmonary trunk, and the pulmonary circulation.
why is the wall of the right ventricle thinner than left ventricle?
b/c left ventricle has to push more blood. it pushes blood to the entire body!!
what does the left atrium do?
it collects recently - oxygenated blood from the pulmonary circulation
how is the left atrium similar to the right atrium?
it also has smooth and rough parts and interatrial septum
smooth part has the 4 pulmonary vein opening (where bloods comes in)
rough part is mostly in the left auricle and its pectinate muscles
what happens when left atrium constrict?
O2ed blood passes through the left AV opening into the left ventricle
what valves are in the left atrium?
mitral/bicuspid valve - ant and post cusps
what does the left ventricle do?
pushes O2ed blood into the system circulation
how is the LV similar to RV?
mitral valve’s two cusps have chordae tendineae and two papillary muscles (anterior and posterior) attached to anchor the cusps, preventing prolapse.
- THIS IS MOST COMMON VALVE IN HEART TO FAIL!!!!!
what is in between right and left ventricles?
what is the apparence of interventricular septum?
it has a thick musclar part and a thin membranous part near the aortic valve.
where are the trabeculae carnae present in the LV?
on the muscular wall
what happens when LV constricts?
blood is propelled through the three semilunar cusps of the aortic valve into the aorta, from whence it goes to the tissues of the body.
what type of cusps are in the aortic valve?
semilunar - each forms an aortic sinus on its superior faces that collect blood
the cusps have nodules on their ends, which makes sure that the valve closes securely when it does
- In two of the three sinuses, coronary arteries arise, supplying
- oxygenated blood to the cardiac tissue.
what is the fibrous cardiac skeleton?
the dense collagenous parts of the heart upon which the muscular portion is anchored, serving as the origin of the cardiac muscle
what is the fibrous cardiac skeleton composed of?
-Four fibrous rings (annulus fibrosa), which support the four valves of the heart,
-Two fibrous trigones, which connect the four rings,
-The membranous portions of both the interventricular and interatrial septa.
what is the function of the fibrous cardiac skeleton?
it prevents contact between the atrial and ventricular cardiac fibers. This is important in maintaining the proper timing of electrical signals in the heart muscles.
what does the impulse conducting system do?
is responsible for coordinating the cardiac cycle,
how does the impulse conducting system do its job?
It does this through the rapid and specific generation and propagation of electrical signals through the cardiac muscle.
- The nodes, bundles, and bundle branches of the system are composed of cardiac muscle fibers that
- have been specialized for conduction (THEY ARE NOT NERVES)
what is the SA node? and where is it?
pacemaker of the heart
in the wall fo the RA near the sup vena cava opening
how many impulses per min does the SA node generate?
what is the AV node? where is it?
located in the interatrial septum near the coronary sinus opening
impulse that is conducted through the muscle of the right atrial wall quickly reaches the AV node, which distributes the impulse to the AV bundle.
where does the AV bundle start?
starts off at the AV node and then runs in the membranous part of the interventricular septum.
- This is the only bridge of conduction between
- the atrial muscles and ventricular muscles.
where does the right bundle branch travel within?
what do the coronary arteries do?
provide O2ed blood to the cardic tissues
where does the right coronary artery start and where does it run to?
arises in the aorta from the right aortic sinus and runs in the coronary sulcus around the anterior and posterior surfaces of the heart
what branches dooes the right coronary artery give off?
1. SA nodal branch - right off the bat
2. right marginal branch (as it descends) - runs along the right border of the heart towards the apex
3. posterior interventricular branch ( on the posterior side of the heart) - runs along the IV septum and supply the post portion of the right and left ventricles
where does the left coronary artery start?
in aorta from the left aortic sinus
what branches does the left coronary artery give off to?
1. anterior interventricular branch - travels in the anterior IV sulcus while supplying most of IV septum and the nearby right and left ventricles
- 2. Circumflex artery - bends around the heart in the coronary sulcus to run along the posterior
- surface as it supplies the left ventricle and left atrium
what are the 2 big veins of the heart?
anterior cardiac vein
what is the main vein of the heart? and where is this? where does it drain into?
located on the posterior side of the heart in the coronary sulcus
drain into right atrium
what are the branches of coronary sinus?
- 1. great cardiac vein - main tributary of the coronary sinus, and ascends in the anterior interventricular sulcus, then the coronary sulcus, before joining the sinus
- - When the great cardiac vein receives the oblique vein of the left atrium, it expands to form the coronary sinus
2. middle cardiac vein of the posterior interventricular sulcus, and the small cardiac vein also drain into the sinus
where does the anterior cardiac vein start?
arise on the anterior surface of the right ventricle, and pass across the coronary sulcus to drain to the right atrium directly
where does the smallest cardiac veins drain directly into?
all four chambers of the heart