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argue that leaders have individualized personal relationships with each memeber of their group
vs. other models that say leaders have a specific style, e.g. task style, which they use for eveyone
1on 1 relationship between ldr and follower
in-group (cadre) vs. out-group (hired hand)
in group are treated with a more considerate friendly and personal manner
outgroup memebers are supervised in a more impersonal manner that foucses more closely on work tasks
Leader member exchange works because?
in exchange for the privilege of being a memeber of the ingroup the ingroup members produce higher quality work
Study by Gerstner and Day (1997) backs this up, higher quality leader memeber exchange = higher performance
Gerstner and Day (1997) Meta analysis
lmx was positively related to subordinate performance as rated
lmx quality was was related to subordinate's satifaction w/supervisor, subordinates prganizational commitment, and overall job satisfaction
Organizational Citizenship Behavior
voluntary behaviors that not part of job
positive, moderately strong relationship between lmx quality and organizational citizenship behavior
if u like your boss, you are more likely to help other workers
Job Performance, or Friendship? Liden and Maslyn (1998)
LMX7, seven item scale widely used, some people argued for broader concepulaziation of leader member relationships, so these guys came up with these 4 dimensions
- This dimension measures work performance, especially with regard to extra
- chores that are not part of the standard job description.
- This dimension assesses the degree of friendship and liking
- This measures the fulfilling of mutual obligations and demonstrations of
- Professional Respect:
- The degree to which the interacting parties demonstrate respect for each
- others’ abilities.
Does Everyone Want to be in the In-Group?
- being in the in-group means going above and beyond the normal work duties, some
- employees might say, “Count me out!”
- quality of the leader-member relationship depends upon the effort put into it
- by both the leader and the follower
Turnover in Veterinary Hospitals
Over a 640 day period,employees with positiveleader-member exchangerelationships were less likelyto experience turnover thanwere the employees whohad poor leader-memberrelationships• Nine of the hospitals hadsuccession events thatresulted in new leadership.
After the succession events,the employees who hadstrong leader-memberexchange relationshipswith the departing leaderswere more likely toleave compared to thoseemployees who had lowleader-member exchangequality
Personality Traits and Leader-MemberRelations
a leaders emapathy good predictor of relationship oriented leadership behaviors
Leader Empathy à Relationship BehaviorsàLeader-Member Exchange Quality•
Leader Ethical Behavior à Relationship Behaviors àLeader-Member Exchange Quality
Jordan and Troth 2010 study of 579 employees
employees with higher emotional inteligence = better leader memeber exchange quality = hihger job satisfaction and lower turnover intentions.
study suggests that is important for leaders and employees to put more effort into improving LMX relations
MBA student leaders, undergraduatecollege teams
- • The leaders who werehigh on agreeablenesswere more successfulat establishing positiveleader-memberrelationships (asmeasured by the team-members) during theinitial meeting.
- • Team members highon extraversion alsocontributed to theinitial establishmentof positive leader-member relationships (asmeasured by the leaders).
• Performance of bothleaders and followersimportant in the long run.
Supervisor Interactions in the SocialServices
- summary of employees worked in social services,
- They examined 3 ways supervisors could could have positive effects on performance and commitment and reduce negative effects of job stress
- Task assistance• Social and emotionalsupervisory support• Supervisoryinterpersonal interaction
Conclusions: emotionallysupportive andinterpersonally effectiveleaders can boost socialservice employees’performance andcommitment whilereducing their stress andburnout.• Task assistanceclearly helps withjob performance and....(cut off from slide)
Importance of Trust and Performance toLeader-Member Exchanges
A meta-analysis: trustis related to leader-member exchange,as well as to jobsatisfaction andperformance
Industry/University CooperativeResearch Centers
High quality leader-member relationshipsempower people to be innovative
• Leader-Member Exchange à CenterPerformance à University Commitment
• No matter how much you get along withyour boss, client, or sponsor, that if you don’tperform, you’re history
Susan Hockfield, President,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
a “listening tour” : people agreed on solvingenergy problems
• She took the lead on creating the collaboratestructure that would tie these groups togetherinto the MIT Energy Initiative
• She also did her part of the leader-memberexchange by wooing investors and governmentsponsors and in this way she provided neededresources and rewards for her faculty
A Portuguese Example: Leaders and SubordinatesDon’t Always Agree
leaderstrust subordinateswhen they areavailable and easilyobserved, and whenthe subordinates seemreceptive to input fromthe leaders
subordinatestrust leaders when theleaders are perceivedto be competent,to be open with thesubordinates, to haveintegrity, and to beavailable
Seeing Eye to Eye: meta analysis
one study indicated moderate overall agreement between followers and leaders, agreement increased with time dydads spent together
- other study Classified agreement between followers and leaders into four categories and calculated % of dydads that belonged to each category,
- also looked at performanc commitment level
- • About one-fifth of thefollowers were under-estimators. These under-estimators had higher jobperformance than the over-estimators, but lower jobsatisfaction and commitment.This suggests that the leadersof the under-estimatorsneed to do a better jobcommunicating their approvaland positive regard if theywant to keep these moderatelygood performers.
fair exchange conversation
two people talking back and forth telling stories, each person is equally interested in the others story, they each begin to relax and put more enthusiasm into the convo, cuz of the reinforcement
another situation, two people telling stories, but one person not ginving the reinforcement, and other person begins to say less, enthusiasm goes down
leader have to make being in a group a rewarding experience. Positie upward emotional spiral that will make everyone feel good