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  1. Which of the following is true about public opinion?
    People's opinions can be contradictory and most Americans know very little about public affairs.
  2. The first English-speaking philosopher to write at length about public opinion was
    Jeremy Bentham.
  3. The accuracy of a poll is expressed in terms of _____, the degree to which the sample estimates might differ from what the population actually thinks.
    sampling error
  4. The Gallup organization has erred badly only once in predicting the outcomes of presidential elections, and that was in the _____ election.
    1948
  5. Compared to families of other nations, those in the United States are
    more likely to interact in a way that promotes children's sense of individualism and equality.
  6. _____ oppose governmental activism in both the economic and social realms.
    Louisiana
  7. Which of the following statements is true?
    Republicans are more likely to oppose social welfare programs than Democrats are.
  8. About _____ percent of Americans participate each year in a mass demonstration
    1
  9. When it comes to overt displays of patriotism, such as the flying of national flags and the recitation of the pledges of allegiance, Americans
    exhibit their love for their country in ways that have few parallels elsewhere in the world.
  10. A _____ would likely oppose major increases in health care spending by government and support government-required prayer in the public schools.
    conservative
  11. Which of the following statements is true?
    Economic class has less influence on public opinion in Europe than in the United States.
  12. To assess public opinion, political observers today rely primarily on
    polls.
  13. Increasing reliance on the use of _____ has raised questions about the future of telephone polling.
    cell phones
  14. Which of the following statements is true?
    Elderly Americans vote at high levels and are well-organized compared to young Americans
  15. Which of the following is not an agent of socialization?
    interest groups
  16. Which of the following statements is true?
    • Europeans know more about international affairs than Americans.
    • A survey of Ivy-League students revealed that half could not name both U.S. senators from their state.
    • A survey of Ivy-League students revealed that 75 percent could not identify Abraham Lincoln as the author of the phrase "a government of the people, by the people, and for the people."
  17. The poll tax
    was outlawed in 1964 by the Twenty-fourth Amendment
  18. Which of the following statements is true?
    Voter turnout is lower in the U.S. than in other democracies; voter turnout in presidential elections has averaged 55 percent since the 1960s, and has seldom exceeded 40 percent in a midterm election since 1970.
  19. Why is voter turnout lower in the United States than in other democracies?
    Americans must register to vote, cannot vote on the weekend, and the country has never had a viable socialist or labor party.
  20. What fraction of states elect their governors in non-presidential election years?
    four-fifths
  21. Which factors are the most accurate predictors of voter turnout?
    education and income
  22. The last time that voter turnout in midterm elections reached 50 percent was in
    1920.
  23. MoveOn is an example of
    an influential, Web-based movement.
  24. Of the following nations, citizens in _____ are more likely to contribute money and time to election campaigns.
    the United States
  25. Barack Obama's success in raising money through the internet in 2008 followed the path blazed by which 2004 presidential contender?
    Howard Dean
  26. Which of the following statements is true about protest movements in America?
    Protest movements are an American tradition, but they do not generally receive strong public support.
  27. Registration for voting began around
    1900.
  28. Which of the following statements is true about voting?
    • Free and open elections are a defining characteristic of democratic government.
    • B) Voting is regarded as the basic duty of all citizens.
    • C) Voting is a widespread political activity.
    • D) In one sense, voting is a restricted form of participation.
    • E) All of the answers are correct.
  29. Voter turnout among working-class white citizens dropped sharply in 1968 and 1972, largely because of the centrality of which issue?
    civil rights
  30. People who are _____ are unlikely to vote
    apathetic and alienated
  31. Which of the following statements is true?
    A) Political parties did not develop in the United States until the late nineteenth century.
    B) Political parties evolved in the United States due to a political rivalry.
    C) There were no political parties in existence on a national level in the U.S. when the Constitution was written, but they evolved due to a political rivalry.
    D) There were no political parties in existence on a national level in the United States when the Constitution was written in 1787.
    E) Political parties existed on a national level in the United States when the Constitution was written in 1787.
    C) There were no political parties in existence on a national level in the U.S. when the Constitution was written, but they evolved due to a political rivalry.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. _____ developed the first grassroots political party in the United States.
    A) Thomas Jefferson
    B) John Quincy Adams
    C) James Monroe
    D) James Madison
    E) Andrew Jackson
    E) Andrew Jackson
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Whigs were united by
    A) their coherent philosophy.
    B) their opposition to the policies of the Jacksonian Democrats.
    C) their opposition to Federalist policies.
    D) their opposition to Republican policies.
    E) None of the answers are correct.
    their opposition to the policies of the Jacksonian Democrats.
  34. _____ is credited with the preservation of the American union.
    A) Grover Cleveland
    B) William McKinley
    C) Abraham Lincoln
    D) Franklin Roosevelt
    E) John C. Breckinridge
    Franklin Roosevelt
  35. Which of the following was a realigning election during which Republicans consolidated control?
    A) 1860
    B) 1896
    C) 1932
    D) 2000
    E) both 1860 and 1896
    both 1860 and 1896
  36. Which of the following is indicative of a dealignment?
    A) More voters identify with the GOP.
    B) More voters identify with the Democratic party.
    C) More voters identify themselves as an independent.
    D) More voters identify with the Socialist party.
    E) None of the answers are correct.
    More voters identify themselves as an independent
  37. Most democracies
    A) have two competitive political parties.
    B) have proportional representation.
    C) have two competitive political parties and proportional representation.
    D) have three or more competitive political parties.
    E) have proportional representation and have three or more competitive political parties.
    have proportional representation and have three or more competitive political parties
  38. _____ is a partial but enduring weakening of partisanship.
    A) Realignment
    B) Reapportionment
    C) Dealignment
    D) Factionalization
    E) Apathy
    Dealignment
  39. _____ occurs when a voter chooses a candidate on the basis of what the candidate promises to do if elected.
    A) Straight-ticket voting
    B) Prospective voting
    C) Retrospective voting
    D) Sociotropic voting
    E) Split-ticket voting
    B) Prospective voting
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. The Republican coalition consists mainly of
    A) Jews.
    B) Catholics.
    C) gays and lesbians.
    D) white middle-class Protestants.
    E) women
    ) white middle-class Protestants.
  41. _____ is an example of a factional party.
    A) The Bull Moose party
    B) The Right-to-Life party
    C) The Green party
    D) The Populist party
    E) The Reform party


    _____ is an example of a factional party.
    A) The Bull Moose party
    B) The Right-to-Life party
    C) The Green party
    D) The Populist party
    E) The Reform party


    _____ is an example of a factional party.
    A) The Bull Moose party
    B) The Right-to-Life party
    C) The Green party
    D) The Populist party
    E) The Reform party

    _____ is an example of a factional party.
    A) The Bull Moose party
    B) The Right-to-Life party
    C) The Green party
    D) The Populist party
    E) The Reform party
    The Bull Moose party
  42. _____ is the only minor party to achieve majority status.
    A) The Democratic party
    B) The Republican party
    C) The Federalist party
    D) The Whig party
    E) The Progressive party
    The Republican party
  43. Not-for-profit political organizations which have become popular tools for evading soft money bans are known as _____ groups.
    A) BCRA
    B) 527
    C) Swift Boat
    D) service
    E) teflon
    527
  44. At least 95 percent of party activists work at the
    A) national level.
    B) state level.
    C) local level.
    D) international level.
    E) national and state levels.
    local level.
  45. Due to issues such as abortion rights, education, employment policies, and gun control _____ have disproportionately voted for the Democratic Party.
    A) Hispanics
    B) women
    C) evangelical Christians
    D) men
    E) African Americans
    women
  46. U.S. political parties
    A) are organized from the top down.
    B) are very centralized.
    C) are loose associations of national, state, and local organizations.
    D) are organized from the bottom up.
    E) are loose associations of national, state, and local organizations which are organized from the bottom up.
  47. 16 CORRECT
    U.S. political parties
    A) are organized from the top down.
    B) are very centralized.
    C) are loose associations of national, state, and local organizations.
    D) are organized from the bottom up.
    E) are loose associations of national, state, and local organizations which are organized from the bottom up.
    ) are loose associations of national, state, and local organizations which are organized from the bottom up.
  48. Which of the following is the best example of an ideological party?
    A) Bull Moose Party
    B) Prohibition Party
    C) Reform Party
    D) Populist Party
    E) Republican Party
    Populist Party
  49. What are some of the disadvantages of candidate-centered campaigns?
    A) They often degenerate into personality contests.
    B) They are fertile ground for powerful special interest groups.
    C) They weaken accountability, as elected officials blame others when things go wrong.
    D) All of the answers are correct.
    E) None of the answers are correct.
    All of the answers are correct.
  50. Which minor party won three percent of the popular vote in the 2000 presidential election?
    A) Libertarian Party
    B) Populist Party
    C) Reform Party
    D) Green Party
    E) Socialist Party of America
    Reform Party
  51. According to Clinton Rossiter, _____ are "creatures of compromise."
    A) the people
    B) journalists
    C) bureaucrats
    D) the parties
    E) interest groups



    According to Clinton Rossiter, _____ are "creatures of compromise."
    A) the people
    B) journalists
    C) bureaucrats
    D) the parties
    E) interest groups



    According to Clinton Rossiter, _____ are "creatures of compromise."
    A) the people
    B) journalists
    C) bureaucrats
    D) the parties
    E) interest groups



    According to Clinton Rossiter, _____ are "creatures of compromise."
    A) the people
    B) journalists
    C) bureaucrats
    D) the parties
    E) interest groups
    the parties
  52. Which nation has been famously labeled "a nation of joiners"?
    A) France
    B) Italy
    C) the United States
    D) Germany
    E) Great Britain
    the United States
  53. Which of the following is not a professional group?
    A) American Association of Retired Persons
    B) American Association of University Professors
    C) American Medical Association
    D) American Bar Association
    E) American Political Science Association
    a
  54. The reality that about 90 percent of regular listeners to National Public Radio do not contribute to their local station is illustrative of
    A) the iron triangle.
    B) issue networks.
    C) the free-rider problem.
    D) inside lobbying.
    E) outside lobbying.
    c
  55. What is the primary activity of the American Civil Liberties Union?
    A) inside lobbying
    B) outside lobbying
    C) protest politics
    D) networking on the Internet
    E) litigation
    e
  56. An iron triangle works to the advantage of
    A) interest groups.
    B) congressional subcommittees.
    C) government agencies.
    D) All of the answers are correct.
    E) None of the answers are correct.


    An iron triangle works to the advantage of
    A) interest groups.
    B) congressional subcommittees.
    C) government agencies.
    D) All of the answers are correct.
    E) None of the answers are correct.
    d
  57. Most political action committees represent
    A) citizens' groups.
    B) government groups.
    C) business groups.
    D) labor groups.
    E) incumbent office holders.
    c
  58. _____ wrote that "Liberty is to faction what air is to fire."
    A) James Madison
    B) Theodore Lowi
    C) John McCain
    D) Bob Livingston
    E) John Stuart Mill
    a
  59. The interest group system
    A) has a working-class bias.
    B) has a middle-class bias.
    C) has an upper-class bias.
    D) has a liberal bias.
    E) has a conservative bias.
    c
  60. The largest labor union in 1950 was
    A) the National Education Association.
    B) the International Brotherhood of Teamsters.
    C) the Service Employees International.
    D) the United Auto Workers.
    E) the United Steel Workers.
    d
  61. The largest labor union in 2000 was
    A) the National Education Association.
    B) the United Auto Workers.
    C) the International Association of Machinists.
    D) the American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees.
    E) the International Brotherhood of Teamsters.
    a
  62. Congress receives more mail from members of _____ than it does from members of any other group.
    A) the American Civil Liberties Union
    B) Greenpeace
    C) Common Cause
    D) the American Association of Retired Persons
    E) MoveOn
    d
  63. Political action committees can contribute _____ per candidate per election under federal law (counting primary and general elections separately).
    A) $1,000
    B) $5,000
    C) $25,000
    D) $50,000
    E) $100,000
    b
  64. "The size factor" advantages
    A) public interest groups.
    B) business groups.
    C) labor unions.
    D) environmental interest groups.
    E) None of the answers are correct.
    b
  65. The National Rifle Association is
    A) a public interest group.
    B) a single-issue group.
    C) an ideological group.
    D) both a public interest and a single-issue group.
    E) None of the answers are correct.
    b
  66. Which of the following is a disadvantage for citizens' groups?
    A) A citizen group has to continually raise funds.
    B) A citizen group has to contend with the free-rider problem.
    C) Its members don't usually receive material benefits.
    D) None of the answers are correct.
    E) All of the answers are correct.
    e
  67. Which part of Washington, D.C. is populated almost entirely by lobbying firms?
    A) C Street
    B) New Jersey Avenue
    C) 13th Street
    D) Pennsylvania Avenue
    E) K Street
    e
  68. What do the Christian Coalition, the National Organization for Women, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People have in common?
    A) They are all dominated by conservatives.
    B) They are all dominated by Democrats.
    C) They are all dominated by conservatives and Democrats.
    D) They are all ideological groups.
    E) They are all economic groups.
    d
  69. What new development has helped citizens' groups to overcome the free-rider problem and reach more donors?
    A) computer-assisted mailing lists
    B) e-mail lists
    C) websites
    D) All of the answers are correct.
    E) None of the answers are correct.
    d
  70. Which of the following groups routinely engage in lobbying?
    A) National Rifle Association
    B) National Organization for Women
    C) U.S. Conference of Mayors
    D) National Governors Conference
    E) All of the answers are correct.
    e
  71. Who coined the term "interest group liberalism"?
    A) Madison
    B) Lowi
    C) de Tocqueville
    D) Schattschneider
    E) Jefferson
    b
  72. Which of the following is true of the nation's early newspapers?
    A) They were too expensive for most people.
    B) They contained a lot of propaganda.
    C) They were too expensive and they contained a lot of propaganda.
    D) They were read by mass audiences.
    E) None of the answers are correct.


    Which of the following is true of the nation's early newspapers?
    A) They were too expensive for most people.
    B) They contained a lot of propaganda.
    C) They were too expensive and they contained a lot of propaganda.
    D) They were read by mass audiences.
    E) None of the answers are correct.


    Which of the following is true of the nation's early newspapers?
    A) They were too expensive for most people.
    B) They contained a lot of propaganda.
    C) They were too expensive and they contained a lot of propaganda.
    D) They were read by mass audiences.
    E) None of the answers are correct.
    c
  73. _____ enhanced public support for a war in Cuba against Spain in 1898.
    A) William Randolph Hearst
    B) William McKinley
    C) Theodore Roosevelt
    D) Adolph Ochs
    E) Franklin D. Roosevelt
    a
  74. Yellow journalism was replaced by
    A) sensationalism.
    B) orange journalism.
    C) biased reporting.
    D) objective journalism.
    E) None of the answers are correct.
    d
  75. _____ was the chief advocate of objective journalism.
    A) William Randolph Hearst
    B) Walter Cronkite
    C) Frederic Remington
    D) Theodore Roosevelt
    E) Adolph Ochs
    e
  76. The Communications Act
    A) deregulated radio broadcasting.
    B) regulated television broadcasting.
    C) provided subsidies for the development of television broadcasting.
    D) brought an end to yellow journalism.
    E) created the Federal Communications Commission
    e
  77. _____ is responsible for the regulation of broadcasting.
    A) Congress
    B) The Securities and Exchange Commission
    C) The Federal Communications Commission
    D) The Department of Justice
    E) The U.S. Attorney General
    c
  78. What is the equal time doctrine?
    A) It is a law which requires broadcasters to afford all candidates the same opportunity to advertise at the same cost.
    B) It is a law which requires presidential candidates to debate on television.
    C) It is a law which requires broadcasters to afford all candidates the same opportunity to advertise at the same cost, and requires presidential candidates to debate on television.
    D) It is a law which requires that all presidential candidates get free air time before the election.
    E) It is a decency standard created by the Supreme Court in 1938.
    a
  79. During the era of objective journalism
    A) newspapers were prohibited by law from editorializing.
    B) broadcasters were prohibited by law from editorializing.
    C) there were no official laws prohibiting editorializing in any media form.
    D) both newspapers and broadcasters were prohibited from editorializing.
    E) editorial bias was common in official news reporting.
    b
  80. Until the 1980s, broadcasters were bound by the _____, which required their news programming to treat fairly all sides of the debate on controversial issues.
    A) Equal Time Doctrine
    B) Fairness Doctrine
    C) Clear and Present Danger Doctrine
    D) Watchdog Doctrine
    E) Common-carrier Doctrine
    b
  81. The media's ability to influence what is on people's minds is referred to as
    A) agenda setting.
    B) the Fairness Doctrine.
    C) yellow journalism.
    D) objective journalism.
    E) issue targeting.
    a
  82. More than 95 percent of the nation's daily newspapers are serviced by
    A) The New York Times.
    B) Reuters.
    C) CNN.
    D) the Associated Press.
    E) Fox News.
    d
  83. The combined audience of the ABC, CBS, and NBC evening newscasts is now _____ that of the early 1980s
    A) one-fourth
    B) three-fourths
    C) one-third
    D) two-thirds
    E) half
    e
  84. The success of what network stemmed largely from its coverage of the Gulf War in 1991?
    A) CNBC
    B) FOX
    C) CNN
    D) MSNBC
    E) ABC
    c
  85. A powerful agenda setter for American society is
    A) Congress.
    B) the president.
    C) the press.
    D) the bureaucracy.
    E) None of the answers are correct.
    c
  86. Which of the following is true of press coverage of major party presidential candidates?
    A) In the 1960s, candidates received fairly negative coverage.
    B) In the 1960s, candidates received fairly positive coverage.
    C) Today, candidates receive fairly negative coverage.
    D) Today, candidates receive fairly positive coverage.
    E) In the 1960s, candidates received fairly positive coverage, but today candidates receive fairly negative coverage.
    e
  87. Of the following nations, journalists in _____ are more likely to believe in partisan neutrality.
    A) Germany
    B) Italy
    C) Great Britain
    D) the United States
    E) Sweden
    d
  88. Which of the following is true about sound bites?
    A) Sound bites are much longer today than in the late 1960s.
    B) Sound bites are much shorter today than in the late 1960s.
    C) In recent presidential campaigns, the average sound bite is about 40 seconds.
    D) In recent presidential campaigns, the average sound bite is about 10 seconds.
    E) Sound bites are much shorter today; in recent presidential campaigns, the average sound bite is about 10 seconds.
    e
  89. The press was acting in its _____ role when it published photos showing the abuse of Iraqi prisoners by U.S. soldiers.
    A) signaler
    B) common-carrier
    C) watchdog
    D) public representative
    E) negative
    c
  90. Which role of the press provides leaders a channel through which to communicate with the public?
    A) common carrier
    B) public representative
    C) watchdog
    D) signaling
    E) gatekeeper
    a

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