Chapter 4 Math Test 2. txt

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emilybrooke082690
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77103
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Chapter 4 Math Test 2. txt
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2011-04-03 22:30:20
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Math
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Math Test Two Chapter Four Notes
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  1. What are the Pre-Number Skills?
    • 1. Classifying (enactive)
    • 2. Finding the Relation between two sets (enactive)
    • 3. Conserving Relations (enactive to iconic)
    • 4. Classifying on the basis of the As-Many Relation
    • 5. Ordering on the basis of the More-Than and Less-Than Relations (iconic)
  2. Why do we teach Pre-Number Skills?
    • 1. birth to age 7
    • 2. skills have to have in place before being introduced to idea of number
    • 3. pre-operational (lack ability to conserve)
    • 4. use measurement and quantity interchangeably when describing different sets
    • 5. based on a heirarchy
  3. Four Important Understandings for Developing Pre-Number Concepts
    • 1. set of things has a number property, and the number property is stable. (CARDINALITY)
    • 2. always make a set with one more or one fewer. (ORDINALITY)
    • 3. whole numbers, we can determine how many objects are in a set, either by recognizing number patterns or by counting.
    • 4. whole numbers, we compare two sets and find whether one set has as many as, more than, or less than the other set.
  4. Classifying Pre-Number Skill
    • 1. Selects objects having a SPECIFIC attitude
    • 2. Sorting objects on the basis of GENERAL attitude
    • 3. DUPLICATING a pattern
    • 4. EXTENDING a pattern
  5. Finding the relation between two sets Pre-Number Skill
    • 1. As Many As Relation
    • 2. More-Than and Less-Than Relation
  6. Definition of Subitizing
    • 1. being able to perceive in your brain how many in a set without having to count each individual piece
    • 2. brain recognizes patterns in way elements are laid out
  7. Classifying on the basis of As-Many Relation Pre-Number Skill
    children are able to match pictures of various amounts of objects to the picture of the number symbol
  8. Ordering on the basis of More-Than and Less-Than Relations Pre-Number Skill
    children are able to put cards in order from least to greatest; children are able to put a card either before, middle, or end
  9. Finding and Using the Properties of Relations
    • 1. Reflexive Property
    • 2. Symmetric
    • 3. Transitive
  10. Reflexive Property
    • 1. A=A
    • 2. mirror images
    • 3. identical sets in every way
  11. Symmetric Property
    • 1. A=B, then B=A
    • 2. does not matter way they are placed, as long as same information given
    • 3. green orange = orange green
    • 4. numbers can be symmetric without objects being identical
    • 5. five dogs + three dogs = 2 trucks + 6 trucks
  12. Transitive Property
    • 1. A=B, B=C, then A=C
    • 2. require 3 sets of information
    • 3. Sally has seven barbies. Her mom went to Wal-Mart and picked out the seven outfits with seven pairs of shoes inside. (7 barbies = 7 outfits, 7 outfits = 7 shoes, then 7 barbies = 7 shoes)
  13. One To One Matching Test in Relation with One To One Correspondence
    • 1. Children use the one to one matching test to determine the condition of one to one correspondence.
    • 2. manipulatives match up
  14. Learning Numbers
    • 1. rote counting: memorize numbers without meaning
    • 2. meaningful counting: concept to number word
  15. Readiness Skills for Learning Numbers 1-10
    • Step 1: associate a number with a family of sets (number / cardinality)
    • Step 2: number / numeral association
    • (abstract idea to written sign "4")
  16. Counting Meaningful Skills
    • 1. count each item once and only once
    • 2. have a way of keeping track of what has been counted already
    • 3. know the counting sequence
  17. Definition of Counting
    knowing that the last number said represents everything that has been counted so far
  18. Kindergarten and First Grade Counting Experiences
    • 1. count all of a set (every element of a set beginning with one)
    • 2. count from a set (count on from a known number either forward or backward) = MATURATIONAL
  19. Readiness Step for Addition and Subtration
    children count from a set and must have access to model
  20. Definition of Cardinal Numbers
    • 1. idea of cardinality
    • 2. numbers that tell how many
  21. Definition of Ordinal Numbers
    • 1. idea of ordinality
    • 2. before, after, or next
    • 3. numbers that tell position more closely related to before or after
  22. What about 0?
    • 1. hard to demonstrate
    • 2. ask questions that correspond to cardinality of "0"
  23. Greater than 10
    • 1. establish ones place before explaining "0"
    • 2. helps develop idea of place value
    • 3. good questions are a must in this activity
    • 4. develop numbers 11-19 first
  24. How to assess student performance using PREVENTATIVE TEACHING?
    • 1. must be able to look through the great array of learning goals and identify those that are key.
    • 2. many tools can be used to assess learning, very few of them include pencil and paper testing.
    • 3. learn to collect, maintain, and study examples of student work to demonstrate mastery.
    • 4. understand how children master these concepts and what difficulties they encounter when learning them.

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