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Why do teachers teach concept development of addition and subtraction?
to teach what it means and when it is appropriate

Enactive Mode = Concept Development
 1. problem needs to be solved
 2. manipulatives to use
 3. allow them to explore
 4. ask for questions to check for understanding

Definition of Learning Basic Facts of Addition
sum of two whole numbers less than ten (sum does not matter)

Order of Teaching Basic Facts
 1. sums less than 10
 2. sums greater than 10
 3. sums equal to 10

Same Sum Fact Family
 1. all basic fact with same number answer
 2. all of the different ways you can show the number
 3. each time you find a different way, write down the number sentence

Transitivity of Equality
 1. discover process when using same sum fact family arrangement
 2. 5 + 1 = 4 + 2

Basic Fact of Addition Information
 1. 100 basic facts of addition
 2. children only memorize 45
 3. vertical format most helpful for memorization
 4. commutative property responsible for reducing

Mental Math Strategies for Addition
 1. Count On or Count Up
 2. Near Doubles
 3. Make 10
 4. Hidden Number

Count On or Count Up Mental Math Strategy
 must have addend of either 1 or 2
 child says larger addend then counts up

Near Doubles Mental Math Strategy
 two addends are consecutive numbers on the number line
 children must memorize double facts first
 use smaller number, then add one or use bigger number, then subtract one

Make 10 Mental Math Strategy
sum is greater than 10

Hidden Number Mental Math Strategy
 use this strategy when there is one whole number in between two addends
 depend upon memorization of doubles facts

Related Number Fact Families for Subtraction
 1. three related numbers, two numbers are the addends and one of the numbers is the sum
 2. can write two addition and two subtraction sentences
 3. using just the terms, I can name all the fact families to relate to the commutative property

