A&P

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jayme529
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77122
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A&P
Updated:
2011-04-05 23:41:18
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muscles
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A&P CHAPTERS 4-9
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  1. name the 4 types of membranes
    • 1. epithelia
    • 2. serous
    • 3. mucous
    • 4. synovial
  2. membranes line the body cavity that lack openings to the outside
    serous membranes
  3. membranes line the cavities and tubes that open to the outside of the body
    Mucous membrane
  4. membranes form the inner lining of joint cavities between the end of bones at freely movable joints
    synovial membranes
  5. the cutaneous membrane in an organ of the integumentary system and is more commonly called
    skin
  6. name the 2 distinct layers of the skin
    • epidermis
    • dermis
  7. the epidermis and the dermis are seperated by a
    base membrane
  8. the __-____ is located directly below the dermis
    subcutaneously layer
  9. cells located in the epidermis called _____ producce the dark pigment, melanin
    melanocytes
  10. the outermost layer of the epidermis is the
    stratum corneum
  11. glands are sweat glands that respond to body temperature elevated by enviornmental heat or physical exercise
    eccrine glands
  12. _____ glands are sweat glands that become active at puberty
    apocrine
  13. name the 2 types of muscles that produce the most heat
    • skeletal
    • cardiac
  14. the main way the body loses heat is through
    sweat glands
  15. the body may loose heat through
    • eccrine glands
    • apocrine glands
    • sudoriferous (sweat glands)
  16. the ___ controls the body's temperature
    hypothalamus
  17. inflammation is a normal response to
    injury or stress
  18. bones are classified according to their
    shapes
  19. name the 5 different shapes of bones
    • long
    • short
    • flat
    • irregular
    • sesamoid
  20. the end of a bone is
    epiphysis
  21. the shaft of a bone
    diaphysis
  22. the membrane around bones is called
    periosteum
  23. the medullary cavity of a bone contains
    • red and
    • yellow marrow
  24. the ____ is the membrane around the medullary cavity
    endosteum
  25. deposit bones
    osteoblast
  26. dissolve bone
    osteoclast
  27. rickets and osteomalacia are caused by a defiency of vitamin
    D
  28. blood cell formation is called
    hematopoiesis
  29. ___ _____ functions in teh formation of red and white blood cells and blood platelets
    red marrow
  30. ___ _____ stores fat
    yellow marrow
  31. the human body has how many bones
    206
  32. the axial skeleton includes the
    • skull - cranium
    • hyoid bone
    • vertebral column
    • thoracic cage
  33. the appendicular skeleton consist of
    • pectorial girdle
    • upper and lower limbs
    • pelvic girdle
  34. name the eight bones of the cranium
    • frontal
    • left and right parietal
    • left and right temporal
    • occipital
    • ethmoid
    • sphenoid
  35. the fibrous membrane that separeate the cranial bones at birth are called
    fontanells (sutures)
  36. syndesmosis is a type of fibrous joint where the bones are held together by an
    ligament
  37. __-____ are found between flat bones of the skull that are united by a sutural ligamnet
    wormian bones
  38. a __is a joint formed by the union of a coneshaped process and a socket
    gomphosis
  39. ________and_______ are the two types of cartliaginous joints
    synchondrosis and symphysis
  40. __ joints allow free movement of the joint
    synovial
  41. synovial joints are sometimes partially or completely divided into 2 compartments by disk of fibrocartilage
    menisci
  42. the thin layer of hyaline cartilage that covers the synovial join is called
    articular cartilage
  43. the inner layer of the joint capsule of a synovial joint is called
    synovial membrane
  44. name two examples of ball and socket joints
    shoulder and hip
  45. give two examples of condyloid joint
    metacarpals and phalanges
  46. ____joints allow only sliding or back and forth movement
    gliding
  47. in a ____joint, the convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another bone
    hinge
  48. a ---- joint consist of one bone rotating within another ring shaped bone
    pivot
  49. the closed fluid filled sacs within the synovial joints are called
    bursea
  50. the _____ _____ extends from the skull to the pelvis and consist of 26 bones called
    • vertebral column
    • vertebrae
  51. the vertebral column has four curvatures which are called
    • cervical
    • thoracic
    • lumbar
    • sacral
  52. the seven ____ vertebrae compromise the bony axis of the neck
    cervical
  53. the first vertebrae is the
    atlas
  54. there are _____thoracic vertebrae
    12
  55. there are _____lumbar vertebrae
    5
  56. the sacrum is a triangular structure at the base of the
    vertebral column
  57. the coccyx is the lowest part of the vertebral column and has 4 vertebrae that fuse together by age
    25 (nearly all bones are ossified and skeletal growth ceases)
  58. the ____ is a heavy bone that attaches the scapula to the elbow
    humerus
  59. ____ is a loose connective tissue that holds muscle in place
    tendon
  60. _____and______ are the two muscle proteins that make contraction work
    actin and myosin
  61. the only energy compound needed for muscle contraction is
    ATP
  62. the site where the nerve and the muscle fibers meet is called
    neuromuscular junction
  63. ____neurons sends impulses to the brain
    sensory
  64. ____neurons receive impulses from the brain
    motor
  65. ___are chemicals that relay impulses from one neuron to another
    neurotransmitter
  66. _____is a compound that is a skeletal muscle neurotransmitter
    acetylcholine
  67. ______is the enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine
    acetylcholinesterase
  68. _____ ______ is the energy source used to regenerate atp from adp and phosphate
    creatine phosphate
  69. the _________ is the phenomenon that muscle fibers contract completely or not at all. no partial contraction is possible
    all or none response
  70. muscle ____ is the partial contraction of a muscle
    muscle tone
  71. when muscle shorten as a result of contraction this is called a _____contraction
    isotonic
  72. when the tension of a muscle increases but the legnth stays the same it is called an _____ contraction
    isometric
  73. the _____ period is the delay between the time the stimulus was applied and the time the mucsle responded
    latent
  74. the ______ period is the period following the stimulation of a muscle when the muscle remains unresponsive
    refractory
  75. successive contrations of a muscle until maximum stregnth is reached is called the
    sustained contraction
  76. a ____ contraction is sustained muscle contraction
    tetanic
  77. muscle _____is a decrease in size and stegnth of a muscle
    atrophy
  78. the immovable end of a muscle is called
    origin
  79. the moveable end of a muscle is called
    insertion
  80. ______are muscles that oppose other muscle
    antagonist
  81. the ____controls the movement of the jaw aids in chewing food and is the strongest muscle in the body
    masseter
  82. a _____ is a muscle that controls a circular opening
    sphincter
  83. a ____ is a series of involuntary contractions of various voluntary muscles
    seizure
  84. _____ is the spontaneous contractions of individual muscle fibers producing rapid and uncoordinated activity within a muscle
    fibrillation

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