Fluid and Electrolyte Flash Cards

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Fluid and Electrolyte Flash Cards
2011-04-03 22:48:02
fluid electrolyte

Nurs 3344 Test 3
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  1. Electrolytes
    Chemical substances that develop anelectric charge and are able to conduct an electric current when placed in water; ions
  2. Cation
    Ions that carry a positive charge
  3. Anion
    Ions that carry a negative charge
  4. What do electrolytes do?
    • Regulate fluid blance and hormone production
    • Strengthen skeletal structures
    • Act as catalysts in nerve response, muscle contraction, and the metabolism of nutrients
  5. Hypovolemia-isotonic
    • Fluid Volume Deficit
    • Loss of water and electrolytes from the ECF
  6. Dehydration-Osmolar
    • Fluid Volume Deficit
    • Loss of water with no loss of electrolytes
  7. Dehydration results in an increase in what three things?
    • Hematocrit
    • Serum electrolytes
    • Urine specific gravity
  8. Hypervolemia-isotonic
    • Fluid Volume Excess
    • Water and Sodium retained in abnormally high proportions
  9. Overhydration-osmolar
    • Fluid Volume Excess
    • More water gained than electrolytes
  10. Sever hypervolemia can lead to ____ and ____.
    • Pulmonary edema
    • Heart Failure
  11. Overhydration results in decreases of what three things?
    • Hematocrit
    • Serum electrolytes
    • Protein
  12. Major electrolytes in the body
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
    • Chloride
    • Magnesium
    • Phosphorous
    • Calcium
  13. Sodium
    • Major electrolyte found in the ECF
    • Essential for maintenance of acid-base balance, active and passive transport mechanisms, and irritability and conduction of nerve and muscle tissue
  14. Normal serum sodium levels
    Between 136 and 145 mEq/L
  15. Hyponatremia
    • Serum sodium levels less than 136 mEq/L
    • Net gain of water or loss of sodium-rich fluids
    • Water moves from ECF to ICF causing cells to swell
  16. Hypernatremia
    • Serum Sodium level more than 145 mEq/L
    • Serious electrolyte imbalance;can cause significant neurological, endocrine, and cardiac disturbances
    • Cells become dehydrated
  17. Potassium
    • Major cation in ICF
    • Plays a vital role in cell metabolism; transmission of nerve impulses; functioning of cardiac, lung, and muscle tissues; and acid-base balance
  18. Normal serum potassium levels
    3.5 to 5 mEq/L
  19. Hypokalemia
    • Serum potassium level less than 3.5 mEq/L
    • Result of an increased loss of potassium from the body or movement of potassium into the cells
  20. Hyperkalemia
    • Serum potassium levels more than 5 mEq/L
    • Result of an increased intake of potassium, movement of potassium out of the cells, or inadequate renal excretion
  21. Calcium
    Essential for proper functioning of the CV, neuromuscular, and endocrine systems, as well as blood clotting and teeth formation
  22. Normal calcium levels
    9 to 10.5 mg/dL
  23. Hypocalcemia
    Serum calcium level less than 9 mg/dL
  24. Normal Magnesium levels
    1.5 to 2.5 mEq/L
  25. Hypomagnesemia
    Seum magnesium level less than 1.5 mEq/L
  26. Function of Sodium
    Major contributor to maintaining water balance
  27. Regulatory Mechanism of Sodium
    Dietary intake and aldosterone secretion
  28. Function of Potassium
    Is necessary for glycogen deposits in the liver and skeletal muscle, transmission and conduction of nerve impulses, normal cardiac conduction, and skeletal and smooth muscle contraction
  29. Regulatory Mechanism of Potassium
    Dietary intake and renal excretion regulate potassium.
  30. Function of Calcium
    Bone and teeth formation, blood clotting, hormone secretion, cell membrane integrity, cardiac conduction, transmission of nerve impulses, and muscle contraction
  31. Regulatory Mechanism of Calcium
    Absorbed from intestine, excreted by the kidneys and resorption or deposition in bone. Regulated by parathyroid hormone, vitamin D & calcitonin.
  32. Function of Magnesium
    Essential for enzyme activities, neurochemical activities, and cardiac and skeletal muscle excitability
  33. Regulatory Mechanism of Magnesium
    Serum magnesium is regulated by dietary intak, renal mechanisms, and actions of the parathyroid hormone (PTH).
  34. Normal Chloride Levels
    95-105 mEq/L
  35. Function of Chloride
    Chloride is the major anion in ECF. The transport of chloride follows sodium.
  36. Regulatory Mechanism of Chloride
    Serum chloride is regulated by dietary intake and the kidneys
  37. Normal Levels of Bicarbonate
    • 22-26 (arterial) mEq/L
    • 24-30 (venous) mEq/L
  38. Function of Bicarbonate
    The bicarbonate ion is an essential component of the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffering system essential to acid-base balance.
  39. Regulatory Mechanism of Bicarbonate
    The kidneys regulate bicarbonate.
  40. Normal Phosphate Levels
    2.8-4.5 mg/dL
  41. Function of Phosphate
    It assists in acid-base regulation. Phosphate and calcium help to develop and maintain bones and teeth. Phosphate also promotes normal neuromuscular action and participates in carbohydrate metabolism.
  42. Regulatory Mechanism of Phosphate
    Phosphate is normally absorbed through the GI tract. It is regulated by dietary intake, renal excretion, intestinal absorption, and PTH.
  43. Lab Values of Hyponatremia
    • serum sodium level below 135 mEq/L
    • serum osmolality 280 mOsm/kg
    • urine specific gravity below 1.010 (if not caused by SIADH)
  44. Signs and Syptoms of Hyponatremia
    • apprehension
    • personality change
    • postural hypotension
    • postural dizziness
    • abdominal cramping
    • nausea and vomiting
    • diarrhea
    • tachycardia
    • dry mucous membranes
    • convulsions
    • coma
  45. Lab values of Hypernatremia
    • serum sodium levels above 145 mEq/L
    • serum osmolality 300 mOsm/kg
    • urine specific gravity 1.030 (if not caused by diabetes insipidus)
  46. Signs and Syptoms of Hypernatremia
    • extreme thirst
    • dry and flushed skin
    • dry and sticky tongue and mucous membranes
    • postural hypotension
    • fever
    • agitation
    • convulsions
    • restlessness
    • irritability
  47. Lab Values of Hypokalemia
    • serum potassium level below 3.5 mEq/L
    • electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities: flattened T wave; ST segment depression; u wave; potentiated digoxin effects (e.g., ventricular dysrhythmias)
  48. Signs and Symptoms of Hypokalemia
    • weakness and fatigue
    • muscle weakness
    • nausea and vomiting
    • intestinal distention
    • decreased bowel sounds
    • decreased deep tendon reflexes
    • ventricular dysrhythmias
    • paresthesias
    • weak, irregular pulse
  49. Lab Values of Hyperkalemia
    • serum potassium level above 5.0 mEq/L
    • ECG abnormalities: peaked T wave and widened QRS complex (bradycardia, heart block, dysrhythmias); eventually QRS pattern widens, and cardiac arrest occurs
  50. Signs and Symptoms of Hyperkalemia
    • anxiety
    • dysrhythmias
    • paresthesia
    • weakness
    • abdominal cramps
    • diarrhea
  51. Lab Values of Hypocalcemia
    • serum ionized calcium level below 4.5 mEq/L OR total serum calcium below 8.5 mg/dL
    • ECG abnormalities: ventricular tachycardia
  52. Signs and Symptoms of Hypocalcemia
    • numbness and tingling of fingers and circumoral (around mouth) region
    • hyperactive reflexes
    • positive Trousseau’s sign (carpopedal spasm with hypoxia)
    • positive Chvostek’s sign (contraction of facial muscles when facial nerve is tapped)
    • tetany
    • muscle
  53. Lab Values of Hypercalcemia
    • serum ionized calcium level above 5.5 mEq/L or total serum calcium level above 10.5 mg/dl
    • x-ray examination showing generalized osteoporosis, widespread bone cavitation, radiopaque urinary stone
    • elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level 25 mg/100 ml
    • elevated creatinine level 1.5 mg/100 ml caused by fluid volume deficit (FVD) or renal damage caused by urolithiasis
    • ECG abnormalities: heart block
  54. Signs and Symptoms of Hypercalcemia
    • anorexia
    • nausea and vomiting
    • weakness
    • hypoactive reflexes
    • lethargy
    • flank pain (from kidney stones)
    • decreased level of consciousness
    • personality changes
    • cardiac arrest
  55. Lab Values of Hypomagnesia
    serum magnesium level below 1.5 mEq/L
  56. Signs and Symptoms of Hypomagnesia
    • muscular tremors
    • hyperactive deep tendon reflexes
    • confusion and disorientation
    • tachycardia
    • hypertension
    • dysrhythmias
    • positive Chvostek’s sign and Trousseau’s sign
  57. Lab Values of Hypermagnesia
    • serum magnesium level above 2.5 mEq/L
    • ECG abnormalities: prolonged QT interval, AV block
  58. Signs and Symptoms of Hypermagnesia
    • acute elevations in magnesium levels
    • hypoactive deep tendon reflexes
    • decreased depth and rate of respirations
    • hypotension
    • flushing