SFOS 4

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Author:
zf2010
ID:
77153
Filename:
SFOS 4
Updated:
2011-04-04 00:54:11
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SFOS Red Blood Cells Bone Marrow Hematopoiesis
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SFOS 4
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  1. What is the phase order of hematopoiesis in utero?
    • Prehaptic phase - erythropoiesis in yolk sac, nucleated erythrocytes
    • Hepatosplenothymic phase - leukocytes, platelets appear, non-nucleated erythrocytes
    • Medullolymphatic phase - bone marrow
  2. 1. Define red marrow
    2. Define yellow marrow
    • 1. Active hematopoietic reticular connective tissue
    • 2. Adipose tissue
  3. What are the cellular steps Erythropoiesis?
    • Pluripotential stem cell
    • Multipotential myeloid cell
    • CFU-E (influenced by erythropoietin, IL3, IL4)
    • Proerythroblast
    • Basophilic erythroblast
    • Polychromatophilic erythroblast
    • Normoblast/Orthrochromatophilic erythroblast
    • Reticulocyte (loses nucleus)
    • Erythrocyte
  4. What are the cellular steps in Granulopoiesis?
    • Pluripotential stem cell
    • Multipotential myeloid cell
    • CFU-GM, CFU-Eo, CFU-Ba (by respective CSFs, IL3, IL5)
    • Myeloblast
    • Promyelocyte
    • Neutrophilic, Eosinophilic, Basophilic myelocyte
    • Neutrophilic, Eosinophilic, Basophilic metamyelocyte
    • Band Neutrophil
    • Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil
  5. What are the cellular steps in Monocyte development?
    • Pluripotential stem cell
    • Multipotential myeloid cell
    • CFU-GM
    • CFU-M
    • Monoblast
    • Promonocyte
    • Monocytes
  6. What are the steps in Thrombopoiesis?
    • Pluripotential stem cell
    • Multipotential myeloid cell
    • CFU-Meg
    • Megakaryoblast
    • Megakaryocyte - produce platelets
  7. What is a CFU?
    • Colony forming unit
    • Unipotential precursor to hemotopoietic steps
  8. Define nutrient foramina/arteries
    Supply sinusoidal capillaries, pass through bone cortex
  9. What are adventitial reticular cells?
    Support cells in cords of medullary cavity - make up STROMA
  10. When RBCs break down, what are the possible fates of hemoglobin/heme?
    • Hemoglobin binds to haptoglobin (carrier protein)
    • Hemoglobin broken down, heme binds to hemopexin (carrier protein)
    • Cleared by liver macrophages
  11. What role do RBCs have in blood buffering?
    Contain carbonic anhydrase - forms bicarbonate
  12. 1. Examples of Integral RBC membrane proteins
    2. Peripheral membrance proteins
    • 1. Band 3 protein (binds hemoglobin), blood group antigens
    • 2. Inside surface of cell membrane
  13. What is a normal Erythrocyte Count?
    4-6 x 10^6 RBC/ uL
  14. Define Hematocrit, normal level
    • % RBC volume of blood volume
    • 40-45%
  15. Define unit: Hemoglobin, normal value
    • Total hemoglobin in all RBC in 1 dL
    • 1/3 of %Hematocrit in g/dL
  16. Define Mean Cell Volume
    • Average volume of each RBC
    • Hematocrit/RBC count
  17. Define:
    1. Normocytic
    2. Anisocytosis
    • 1. Normal MCV
    • 2. Abnormal MCV
  18. Define Mean Cell Hemoglobin
    Average hemoglobin content per RBC
  19. Define Mean Cell Hemoglobin Concentration
    • Hemoglobin (g/L) / Hematocrit
    • Normochromic, hyperchromic, hypochromic
  20. Types of anemia
    • Blood loss anemia
    • Aplastic anemia - lack of functioning bone marrow
    • Megaloblastic anemia - B12, folic acid def.
    • Hemolytic anemia - RBC easily rupture
  21. If RBC size change (anisocytosis), indicates:
    • Microcytic - iron def.
    • Macrocytic - Folic acid, B12 def.
  22. RBC irregular shapes (Poikilocytosis), indications
    • Spiked RBC - alterations in plasma/lipids (liver disease)
    • Schistocytes - damage from abnormal vessels
  23. Describe the regulation of erythropoiesis
    • Kidney cortex senses O2 levels
    • Secrete erythropoietin
    • Stimulates maturation, prevents apoptosis
  24. Define pernicious anemia
    • Lack of DNA synth via Vit B12 def.
    • Results in fragile, macrocytic RBCs
  25. Where does granulopoiesis occur?
    Bone marrow - also location of reserve
  26. What is polycythemia?
    • Production of large quantities of extra red blood cells
    • Volycythemia Vera - pathological

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