§ The variety of species inhabiting a particular environment.
§ – related to composition. They are locked up in the body or plant and as decomposition occurs those nutrients are released back into the eco-system.
§ Any living creature that is too small to be seen with the naked eye
§ The degradation of environmental pollutants by living organisms. (Example: Microbes that eat oil in the water).
How do we use Bioremediation?
1. Destroy PCBs
2. Destroy DDT
3. Clean up oil spills
4. Clean up TNT (trinitroluene)
§ The highest level in classification above the level of kingdom. All organisms can be assigned to one of three domains: Bacteria, Archaea, Eurcarya.
§ Diseases that have increased in incidence in the past 20 years.
§ Organism composed of one or more eukaryotic cells; members of the domain Eurcarya are eukaryotes.
§ Cell type characterized by a membrane-bound nucleus.
§ The population of microorganisms that normally grow on the healthy human body or other specified environment.
Obligate Intracellular Parasite:
§ An organism or other agent that can only multiply inside living cells.
§ An organism or virus able to cause disease.
§ Single-celled organism consisting of prokaryotic cell; members of the domains Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotes.
§ Cell type characterized by the lack of a membrane-bound nucleus.
Why do we want to know about the functions of microorganisms?
1. Prevent food spoilage
2. Prevent disease
3. To treat disease
4. To Preserve food
5. To Ferment food
6. To decompose
7. To digest
§ Living organisms arising from non-living material.
His description for Cells.
The beginning of Cell Theory.
§ Robert Hooke (1665)
Anton von Leeuwenhoek (1674-1723)
§ Ground a piece of glass and saw "animalcules".
§ Microorganisms are the foundation for all life on earth.
§ The theory that; organisms such as worms can arise from non-living material spontaneously.
§ The theory that life can only propagate from other life.
§ Experiments: Raw meat covered with gauze and not covered with gauze to disprove spontaneous generation.
§ Used swan necked flasks with bacteria traps in "S" curve and boiled broth. His experiments were consistent and did not generate bacteria and cloud the broth unless the flask was tipped and the broth touched the bacteria trap.
Tyndall tried to replicate Pasture's experiments and failed...Why?
§ Different infusions require different boiling times. There are heat resistent spores that exist in some infusions. Some must be boiled 5 min others 5 hours.