Microbiology Section 1

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Microbiology Section 1
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2011-04-04 01:03:07
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Flash cards for 1st quiz in Microbiology WWU
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  1. Biodiversity:
  2. § The variety of species inhabiting a particular environment.
  3. Nutrient Recycling
  4. § – related to composition. They are locked up in the body or plant and as decomposition occurs those nutrients are released back into the eco-system.
  5. Microorganism:
  6. § Any living creature that is too small to be seen with the naked eye
  7. Bioremediation:
  8. § The degradation of environmental pollutants by living organisms. (Example: Microbes that eat oil in the water).
  9. How do we use Bioremediation?
  10. 1. Destroy PCBs
    • 2. Destroy DDT
    • 3. Clean up oil spills
    • 4. Clean up TNT (trinitroluene)
  11. Domain:
  12. § The highest level in classification above the level of kingdom. All organisms can be assigned to one of three domains: Bacteria, Archaea, Eurcarya.
  13. Emerging Diseases:
  14. § Diseases that have increased in incidence in the past 20 years.
  15. Eukaryote:
  16. § Organism composed of one or more eukaryotic cells; members of the domain Eurcarya are eukaryotes.
  17. Eukaryotic Cell:
  18. § Cell type characterized by a membrane-bound nucleus.
  19. Normal Microbiota:
  20. § The population of microorganisms that normally grow on the healthy human body or other specified environment.
  21. Obligate Intracellular Parasite:
  22. § An organism or other agent that can only multiply inside living cells.
  23. Pathogen:
  24. § An organism or virus able to cause disease.
  25. Prokaryote:
  26. § Single-celled organism consisting of prokaryotic cell; members of the domains Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotes.
  27. Prokaryotic Cell:
  28. § Cell type characterized by the lack of a membrane-bound nucleus.
  29. Why do we want to know about the functions of microorganisms?
  30. 1. Prevent food spoilage
    • 2. Prevent disease
    • 3. To treat disease
    • 4. To Preserve food
    • 5. To Ferment food
    • 6. To decompose
    • 7. To digest
  31. Spontaneous Generation:
  32. § Living organisms arising from non-living material.
  33. “Little Boxes”
    His description for Cells.
    The beginning of Cell Theory.
  34. § Robert Hooke (1665)
  35. Anton von Leeuwenhoek (1674-1723)
  36. § Ground a piece of glass and saw "animalcules".
  37. Define Microorgarnisms:
  38. § Microorganisms are the foundation for all life on earth.
  39. Spontaeous Generation
  40. § The theory that; organisms such as worms can arise from non-living material spontaneously.
  41. Biogenesis:
  42. § The theory that life can only propagate from other life.
  43. Franchesco Redi
  44. § Experiments: Raw meat covered with gauze and not covered with gauze to disprove spontaneous generation.
  45. Louise Pasture
  46. § Used swan necked flasks with bacteria traps in "S" curve and boiled broth. His experiments were consistent and did not generate bacteria and cloud the broth unless the flask was tipped and the broth touched the bacteria trap.
  47. Tyndall tried to replicate Pasture's experiments and failed...Why?
  48. § Different infusions require different boiling times. There are heat resistent spores that exist in some infusions. Some must be boiled 5 min others 5 hours.
  49. Features of Microbial World
  50. § Include living and non-living forms.
  51. Features of Microbial World: Living
  52. § Bacteria, Archaea, Protozoa, Algae, Fungi, Multicellular Parasites
  53. Features of Microbial World: non-living infectious agents
  54. § Viruses, Viroids and Prions
  55. How do Microbes contribute to our planet's atmosphere?
  56. § The continually recycle: Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen
  57. What are the three Domains?
  58. § 1. Bacteria
    • 2. Archaea
    • 3. Eucarya
  59. Procaryotes is a Greek word meaning?
  60. § Nucleus
  61. Procaryotes have no Organelles. True or False?
  62. § True
  63. Bacteria Traits
  64. §1. Procaryotes
    • 2. Unicellular
    • 3. Have specific shapes
  65. What shapes are Bacteria?
  66. 1. Rod shaped
    • 2. Round shaped
    • 3. Spiral
  67. What kinds of cell walls do Bacteria usually have?
  68. Bacteria typically have rigid cell walls.
  69. Do Bacteria have Organelles?
  70. No...they have a prenucleus.
  71. Do Bacteria have Petidoglycan in their cell walls?
  72. Yes!
  73. How do Bacteria multiply?
  74. Binary fission
  75. What are the three ways Bacteria generate energy?
  76. 1. Organic Chemicals
    • 2. Inorganic Chemicals
    • 3. Photosynthesis
  77. What are some useful products from Bacteria?
  78. 1. Cellulose used in stereo headsets
    • 2. Ethanol, as a substitute for gasoline
    • 3. Chemicals poisonous to insects
    • 4. Antibiotics
    • 5. Amino acids used in dietary sup.
  79. What is one of the most deadly bacteria which killed more people in WWI and WWII, Korea, Vietnam and Iraq combined?
  80. Influenza
  81. Are Archaea procaryotes?
  82. Yes.
  83. If Bacteria and Archaea are both procaryotes, how do they differ?
  84. Archaea do not have petidoglycan in their outer membrane.
  85. How else do Archaea differ from Bacteria?
  86. They live in extreme environments for heat, cold, salt, etc.

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