Cognitive Neuroscience

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Anonymous
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77186
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Cognitive Neuroscience
Updated:
2011-04-04 01:34:39
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Working Memory II
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Exam #2
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  1. Atkinson Shiffrin Modal Model componentds
    sensory input-sensory memory (info lost) etc the same as Modal Model
  2. Serial Position curve demonstrates
    • STM different from LTM-
    • memory for recent items worse than for primacy items, shows that variables that affect STM are influenced by the recency effect, but not the primacy effect
  3. when you add a task 10 sec or 30 sec to the free recall o words
    recall worsens as a function on the seconds of the task
  4. 2 components of the Atkinson Shiffrin Dual-Store Modal Model
    Structural and Processing
  5. Definition of a structural component
    Memory stores that do not change
  6. Definition of processing components
    parts of the system that are flexible and under a persons control
  7. Types of structural components and their definitions
    • Sensory stores-brief, parallel processing, separate stores for each sense, large capacity
    • STM store - limited capacity- short duration
    • LTM store -unliminted capacity-long duration
  8. Processing components and their definition
    • Rehearsal- holding of relevant information in STM in order to copy it into LTM. The longer preserved in STM the more likely it will move to LTM
    • Coding-aspects of information registerd can determine kinds of information remembered and other info associated with it
    • Retrieval-getting info from LTS
    • Decision
  9. 2 desciptions of Modal Model
    • 1. info processing leads info to LTM
    • 2. STM holds many different types of info that are input through domain specific sensory stores
  10. Criticims of Atkinson and Shiffrin Model
    • 1. All information is does not necessarily need to be moved into LTS eventually (waiters, phone numbers)
    • 2. Different capacities for different types of information of different domains - 7 and 7
    • 3. Model does not account for how complex cogntive processes are performed within STM
  11. Patient KF had what type of impairment and a lesion where
    • imparied STM but in tact LTM
    • lesion in left infererior Parietal
  12. Patient HM had type of impairment and a lesion where
    impaired LTM but in tact STM, anterograde amnesia, could not move info into LTM
  13. Definition of Working Memory
    A cogntiive process that allows for internal reperesentations of relevant info to be manipulated and maintained for short intervals without distraction by irrelevant info
  14. Working memory is characterized by
    • 1. ability to keep limited amount of info active
    • 2. used in service of higher cog functions like reasonsing and comprehension
  15. Working Memory Model Baddely and Hitch
    • Central Exec
    • Phonological loop (verbal) and visuospatial sketchpad (nonverbal)
  16. Dual Interference Task
    Verbal and spatial tasks are primary. when secondary task is of the same domain, accuracy is decreased. when the secondary task is of the other domain, some executive cost but mostly ok performance.
  17. Two things that distinguish different types of memory stores
    • 1. Domains of information maintained
    • 2. Mechanism of maintenance (verbal or nonverbal)
  18. Maintenance is part of what attention system
    orienting (select to actively hold information or manipulate it in your mind over time)
  19. Executive control is part of what attention system
    monitoring- ability to manipulate or maintain information while overcoming distraction and prepotent response tendencies
  20. Executive Control box
    • manipulation of information
    • planning
    • coordination between tasks
  21. Phonological loop box
    active maintenance of verbal information
  22. visuospatial sketchpad
    active maintenance of nonverbal information (object and spatial information)
  23. Brain regions involved in maintenance
    dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex
  24. Spatial Delayed Response Task
    • Present stim 1 (encode items)
    • delay interveal (maintain item)
    • present stim 2 (review contents of memory to arrive at decision)
  25. Delay Period activity what occurs during this?
    Tonic Activity- activity within a specialized class of cells that onsets after the offset of S1 and terminates at onset of S2

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