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Verdi (Early Works)
- Luisa Miller
- Il Trovatore
- La Traviata
Verdi's Opera Style
- Harmony and counterpoint was familar to Rossini, Bellini, and Donizetti
- Concentrated on human element and downplayed the mythological, fantastic, or nature.
- Libretti were chosen from some of the best literature.
- His operas were bold, emotional and had fast moving action.
- Carefully controlled every aspect of production.
- 4 acts
- Soprano-baritone duets become a tradmark
- Reminiscence motives
Verdi Early Works Style
- Use many conventions developed by the bel canto Italians.
- Early works are short and dramatically intense.
- After 1858, they lengthen due to French opera influnce.
Based on a novel by Alexandre Dumas
- Les vepres siciliennes
- Un ballo in maschera
Middle-Period Operas Style
- Action becomes more continuous
- Harmonies are more daring
- Solos, ensembles, and choruses are freely mixed
- Orchestra is treated with great originally
- Guilio Ricordi persuaded him to compose two more operas
- Both are to librettos by Arrigo Boito
- Manon Lescaut
- La boheme
- Madama Butterfly
- La fanciulla del West
an operatic parallel to realism in literature