ocean chapter 3

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ocean chapter 3
2011-04-04 03:55:08
chapter oceans

ocean ch 3
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  1. electromagnetic radiation
    as a self-propogating elecctric and magnetic wave that is similar to a wave that moves on the surface of a pond
  2. wavelength
    the wave consists of a series of crests and troughs. the distance between two adjacent crests
  3. frequency
    • greek letter a (lambda). an observer standing at a fixed point in the path of the wave would be passed by a given number of crests in one second. this number is called the frequency of the wave
    • v (nu) greek letter
  4. photon
    a single particle or pulse, of electromagnetic radiation is referred to as a photon.
  5. electromagnetic spectrum
    the full range of forms of electromagnetic radiation, which differ by their wavelengths (or by their frequencies), makes up the e.p.
  6. visible radiation
    or visible light, consists of a relatively narrow range of wavelengths, from about 400nm to 700nm.
  7. visible spectrum
    the coloros of the rainbow--in other words, the range of component wavelengths of visible light--are referred to as the visible spectrum
  8. infrared radiation
    are significantly longer than those of visible light. hence, it is convenient to keep track of them in units called micrometers (um) rather than in nanometers.
  9. ultraviolet (UV) radiation
    • about 10% of the Sun's energy is emitted at wavelengths shorter than those of visislbe light
    • wavelengths of the ultraviolet region extend from 400nm down to about 10nm
  10. flux
    is the amount of energy (or number of photons) in an eletromagnetic wave that passes perpendicularly through a unit surface area per unit time
  11. inverse-square law
    • is expressed mathematically as
    • S= S 0 (r0 / r ) ^2
  12. kelvin (absolute) temperature scale
    • measured in units called kelvins (K)
    • Scientists, particularly those studying climate, often use this system
  13. black body radiation
    the radiation emitted by a blackbody
  14. wien's law
    • states that the flux of radiation emittted by a blackbody reaches its peak value at a wavelength amax that depends inversely on the body's aboslute temperature
    • according to this rule, hotter bodies emit radiation at shorter wavelengths than do colder bodies
    • amax (=approx) is the wavelength of maximum radiation flux in micrometers
  15. photosphere
    the sun emits most of its energy, including visible radiation, from the surface layer, and photosphere
  16. stefan boltzmann law
    states that the energy flux emitted by a blackbody is related to the fourth power of the body's absolute temperature

    f =ot4
  17. effective radiating temperature
    we do this by defining a quantity Te that represents the ert of the planet. this temperature is the temperature that a true blackbody would need to have to radiate the same amount of energy that Earth radiates
  18. barometric law
    the decrease with altitude follows the barometric law, which states that atmospheric pressure decreases by about a factor of 10 for every 16km increase in altitude
  19. troposphere
    which extends from the surface up to 10 to 15km (higher in the tropics, lower near the poles)
  20. stratosphere
    immediately above the troposphere is the stratosphere, which is located from about 10 to 15km to 50 km above the surface and in which temperature increases with altitude
  21. mesosphere
    above the stratosphere, temperature decreases with altitude in the mesosphere (from about 50km to 90km) and then increases once again in the uppermost layer, the thermosphere (above about 90km)
  22. convection
    is a process in which heat energy is transported by the motions of fluid (a liquid or a gas).
  23. latent heat
    is the heat energy released or absorbed during the transition from one phase--gaseous, liquid or solid--to another
  24. radiation
    is the transfer of heat energy in the form of electromagnetic waves
  25. conduction
    is the transfer of heat energy by direct contact between individual molecules
  26. H2O rotation band
    The frequency (or wavelength) of the radiation that can be absorbed or emittted depends on the molecules structure

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