Life Span Development

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Life Span Development
2011-04-05 00:32:49
Life Span Development

Test 2
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  1. The Pill
    • 1960; the most important technological change that allows for the period
    • of emerging adulthood
  2. Emerging Adult
    • 18-25; nothing is demographically normative anymore, individuals make own unique life course decisions
    • Culturally constructed developmental period
  3. Identity Achievement
    • Explored many alternatives; now committed to clearly
    • formulated set of self-chosen values and goals.
  4. Identity Moratorium
    • A delay or holding pattern. In process of exploring gathering information.
    • Facilitated by college
  5. Identity Foreclosure
    Committed to values and goals without exploring alternatives.
  6. Identity Disfussion
    Clear lack of direction
  7. Neural migration
    nuerons migrate to specific brain regions as regions form
  8. Synaptogenesis
    • once situated, synaptic connections form and multiply- begins at end of fetal period
    • timing is genetically prediterminded
    • extent is set by environment
  9. synaptic pruning
    decay of synapses due to lack of stimulation
  10. myelination
    coatingof neural fibers with insulating fatty sheath, carried out by glial cells
  11. lateralization
    the specialization of parts of the brain
  12. brain plasticity
    if a part of the brain is damaged a different part can take on its function
  13. adaptation
    building schemes through direct interaction with the environment
  14. assimilation
    use our current schemes to interpret the external world
  15. accommodation
    create new schemas or adjust old ones after noticing that our current way of thinking so not capture the environment completely
  16. object permanence
    the understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight
  17. mental representations
    • internation depictions of info that the mind can manipulate
    • images and concepts
  18. egocentrism
    failure to distinguish the symbolic viewpoint of others from one's own
  19. private speech
    child starts to communicate w/ themselves in much the same way they converse with others
  20. scaffolding
    adjusting the suppoer offered during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance
  21. referential style
    • vocabulary consists mainly of words that refer to objects
    • most toddlers us this
  22. adolescence
    the transition b/w childhood and adulthood
  23. puberty
    a flood of biological events leading to an adult-sized body and sexual maturity
  24. primary sexual characteristics
    involves the reproductive organs
  25. secondary sexual characteristics
    are visible on the outside of the body and serve as additional signs of sexual maturity
  26. Belsky, Steinberg, and Draper theory
    early experience and the psychological and biological functioning they induces lead individuals to engage in either a quantity or a qualityt patter of mating and rearing
  27. operations
    mental actions that obey logical rules
  28. identity
    • the major personality achievement of adolescence and as a crucial step toward a productive, content adult
    • to construct must: define who you are, what you valule, and the directions you choose to pursue in life
  29. epistemic cognition
    • our reflections on how we arrived at facts,beliefs, and ideas
    • dualistic thinking, relativist thinking, commitment within relativist thinking
  30. pragmatice though
    structural advance in which logic becomes a tool for solving real- world problems
  31. cognitive- affective complexity
    awareness of positive and negative feelings and coordination of them into a complex organized structure
  32. Rehearsal
    just listing words
  33. Elaboration
    us elaboration or sentences to remind us of things
  34. Organization
    try to remember chunks of information
  35. Reversibility
    ability to think through a problem and walk backwards in head through the problem
  36. Decentration
    see different facets to a problem
  37. 1970 British Cohort study
    • children tested for iq at 22, 44, 60 and 120 month
    • kids in high ses familes tended to get smarter and smarter relative to their peers and vice verse
  38. Turkheimer study of SES on IQ
    • there is differential heritability by social class
    • if in a maladaptive environment, may not get experiences that allow genes to be relavant
  39. industry v. inferiority
  40. stressful change hypothesis
    menarche will always be stressful; it is just a stressful transition
  41. Off- Time hypothesis
    girls who reach menarche at a early or late time will have higher behavioral problems because they are not going through it at the same time as their peers
  42. Early timing hypothesis
    reaching menarche early is stressful for girls
  43. Life course persistent
    high child antisocial/ high adolescent deliquincy
  44. adolescent limited
    low/ average child antisocial/ high adolescent delinquency
  45. differential suceptibility
    Idea that individual people by virtue of their genes are differentially responsive/ susceptible to environmental influences than other
  46. differential heritability
    environments can alter the heritability of a characteristic by stimulating/not stimulating genetic expression
  47. deferred imitation
    the ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not present
  48. Deductive reasoning
    ability to generate (in abstract) and test (in reality) a hypothesis
  49. Propositional thought
    ability to evaluate logic of a proposition without regard to "reality"
  50. Maturity gap
    Gap between cognitive capacity and socioemotional development