Chapter 7

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  1. Textbook authors conclude that, for many contemporary families, gender-based division of labor:
    A. gives most of the power to the females in the family
    B. gives most of the power to the males in the family
    C. is still practiced
    D. is no longer practiced
    A. gives most of the power to the females in the family
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. The nationwide survey (discussed at length by Olson and DeFrain) that focused on the strngths of happily married couples revealed that more happy couples than unhappy couples divided household tasks on the basis of
    A. the amount of time spent in the home.
    B. personal convenience
    C. personal preference of the spouses
    D. traditional tasks of males and of females
    C. personal preference of the spouses
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Gender role stereotypes
    A. ensure that all genetic males possess the qualities that a particular society deems to be masculine
    B. affect psychological development from birth on
    C. are a thing of the past in the United States
    D. create equality between the sexes
    B. affect psychological development from birth on.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Which of the following is NOT traditionally associated with masculinity?
    A. independence
    B. a predisposition for math and science
    C. sensitivity
    D. aggressiveness
    C. sensitivity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. The traditional view of gender roles
    A. grew out of a male-oriented culture
    B. suggested sensitivity and emotionality were important for males as well as females.
    C. assumed females had more desirable traits and suggest sensitivity and emotionality were important for males as well as females.
    D. assumed females had more desireable traits than males
    A. grew out of a male-oriented culture
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Who was the sociologist who introduced the modern family's "instrumental" and "expressive" roles?
    A. none of these
    B. Talcott Parsons
    C. Lawrence Kohlberg
    D. Margaret Mead
    B. Talcott Parsons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. In the traditional view, society required that men be ________ and women be ___________
    A. structural; expressive
    B. instrumental; expressive
    C. expressive; instrumental
    D. structual; instrumental
    B. instrumental; expressive
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. An example of an instrumental function is
    A. making major financial decisions
    B. solving family conflicts
    C. teaching children how to get along
    D. rocking a crying infant
    A. making major financial decisions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Critics of Talcott Parson's traditional view of gender roles suggest that his view
    A. all these
    B. mistakenly assumed the traditional family was universal
    C. stereotyped men and women
    D. ignored the potential problems of its view
    A. all these
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Although most research relating to gender focuses on housework and care of children, there is a recent concept in families that considers:
    A. mental work
    B. marital satisfaction
    C. divison of labor
    D. emotion work
    D. emotion work
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Emotion work, a recent concept realized by Erickson, includes:
    a listening closely to one's partner
    b. offering encouragement
    c. showing appreciation
    d. all of these
    d. all of these
  12. Equalitarianism is
    A. the current trend amoung many couples making a serious commitment to each other.
    B. the current trend among many couples making a serious commitment to each other and a contemporary model stressing equality in committed relationships
    C. the sport of horseback riding
    D. a contemporary model stressing equality in committed relationships
    B. the current trend among many couples making a serious commitment to each other and a contemporary model stressing equality in committed relationships
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. an example of the double standard in gender roles is
    A. women claiming more freedom for themselves
    B.a woman who succeeds in business when a male peer does not.
    C. society's greater acceptance of male sexual freedom than female sexual freedom
    D. a couple consisting of a liberated woman and a traditoinal man.
    C. society's greater acceptance of male sexual freedom than female sexual freedom
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Margaret Mead was an anthropologist who studied gender roles in different
    A. cultures
    B. decades
    C. paradigms
    D. none of these
    A. cultures
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Results of Margaret Mead's research on gender roles and culture suggest that
    A. gender roles vary widely from culture to culture
    B. aggressiveness and independence are universal male characteristics
    C. gender roles are biologically determined.
    D. expressive task management is a universal female characteristic
    A. gender roles vary widely from culture to culture
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Gender roles are:
    A. expectations about people's attitudes and behaviors based on whether they are female or male
    B. the sense of being a male or female, and what that means to one's society.
    C. the gender-linked contellation of traits commonly associated with women or men.
    D. the same thing as gender stereotypes
    A. expectations about people's attitudes and behaviors based on whether they are female or male
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Critics of Margaret Mead's research have found that in 33 different societies around the world
    A. "good looks" were more important to males than females.
    B. females in looking for a partner placed greater vale on wealth and ambition
    C.males were more interested in fertility and youth.
    D. all of these
    D. all of these
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. The percentage of heterosexual couples with and without children, where both partners are employed in today's society, is approximately
    A. 65%-70%
    B. 55%-66%
    C. 45%-50%
    D. less than 50%
    B. 50%-66%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Strain-based demands include:
    A. extra hours
    B. extensive travel
    C. workload pressures
    D. shift work
    C. workload pressures
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Which of the following is NOT a theory described in the text that attempts to explain "machismo" in Mexican American culture?
    A. All of these theories are described in the text.
    B. Machismo is taught to make children by Mexican American mothers to guard against enemies
    C. Machismo is one way to acquire status that is denied men of color in our society.
    D. Machismo is an unconscious attempt to overcompensate for feelings of inferiority and powerlessness that arise from being conquered by Spaniards
    B. Machismo is taught to make children by Mexican American mothers to guard against enemies
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Which culture traditionally includes some matrilineal traition in which women owned houses, tools, and agricultural land?
    A. Mexican American
    B. african Amercian
    C. American Indian
    European American
    C. American Indian
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Some reason that make african american women less likely to accept a femisist agenda are that
    A. they have been less liekly to experience the housewife role
    B. they are hesitant to conflict with African American males who share their racial oppression.
    C. they are hesitant to conflict with African American males who share their racial oppression and they have been less liekly to experience the housewife role.
    D. they no longer see a need for a strong women's movement
    C.they are hesitant to conflict with African American males who share their racial oppression and they have been less liekly to experience the housewife role.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Which of the following are accurate examples of the varied gender roles of American Indian women?
    A. Although women can be elected to some tribal offices, the role of chief is reserved for a man
    B. Some tribes have religious beliefs against contraception and abortion
    C. A women can be elected tribal cheif in some tribes
    D. a woman can be elected tribal chief in some tribes and some tribes have religious beliefs against contraception and abortion.
    D. a woman can be elected tribal chief in some tribes and some tribes have religious beliefs against contraception and abortion.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Which theory about gender role development is concerned with obsering how people reinforce each other's gender-related behavior?
    A. cognitive development theory
    B. family systems theory
    C. feminist theory
    D. social learning theory
    D. social learning theory
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Which theory links gender role development to the maturation of the child's thinking processes?
    A. feminist theory
    B. cognitive development theory
    C. social learning theory
    D. familiy systems theory
    B. cognitive development theory
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Which thoery suggest that one's individual gender roles are difficult to change unless other family members also change?
    A. cognitive development theory
    B. family systems theory
    C. social learning theory
    D. feminist theory
    B. Family systems theory
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Which theory challenges traditional gender roles?
    A. social learning theory
    B. family systems theory
    C. cognitive development theory
    D. feminist theory
    D. feminist theory
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Which of the following statements regarding gender role development is NOT supported by a social learning theory?
    A. children dichotomize the world as female versus male.
    B. children see variations from the traditional ideal as failure
    C. children hold flexible views of appropriate gender role behavior that become more rigid in adulthood
    D. children desire to match their characteristics with gender role standards they learn
    C. children hold flexible views of appropriate gender role behavior that become more rigid in adulthood
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Cognitive development theory suggest that
    A. gender identity is established in adolescence.
    B. children create gender identity, gender role sterotypes, and values in their minds in their efforts to understand the world around them
    C. children's gender role stereotypes become progressively more rigid over time and children create gender identity, gender role stereotypes, and values in their minds in their efforts to understand the world around them
    D. children's gender role stereotypes become progressively more rigid over time
    B. children create gender identity, gender role sterotypes, and values in their minds in their efforts to understand the world around them
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Social learning and cognitive development theories have been criticized for
    A. assuming that early childhood is a critical period in gender role development
    B. considering traditional gender role behavior desirable and variations deviant
    C. all of these
    D. assuming that boys develop similar masculine behaviors and girls develop similiar feminine behaviors.
    C. all of these
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. According to family systems theory, a young married man who shares household tasks with his wife is likely to_______ when he visits his parents who maintain traditional gender roles
    A. help his mother wash the dishes
    B. visit with his father in the living room while his mother washes the dishes
    C. return to the behavior expected by his family of orgin
    D. return to the behavior expected by his family of origin and visit with his father in the living room while his mother washes the dishes.
    C. return to the behavior expected by his family of orgin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. In the mid-1990's the Gallup Poll surveyed people in 22 countries about perceived traits of males, and perceived traits of females. The findings indicated that
    A. the majority of respondents in the US and Canada, and Great Britain perceived men to be the more aggressive sex, but with a smaller majority than respondents in most other countries
    B. all of these
    C. across cultures, men were perceived as more aggressive, ambitious, and courageous than women.
    D. in most cultures surveyed, women and men were percived as being equally intelligent
    B. all of these
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Which of the following is NOT congruent with feminist theory?
    A. documenting the countributions women have made in the world
    B. rejecting traditional masculine characteristics
    C. striving to change the conditions of women
    D. being sensitive to other oppressed people
    B. rejecting traditional masculine characteristics
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Our textbook authors posit that with respect to contemporary gender roles in the US
    A. men are assumed to have sex-based traits that are more desirable than the sex-based traits women are assumed to have.
    B. males are assumed to be superior to females because, as a group, they are physically stronger than females.
    C. both females and males have desirable, and undesirable, traits that are not based on their sex
    D. females are assumed to be superior to males because females can become pregnant and give birth.
    E. women are assumed to have sex based traits that are more desirable than the sex based traits men are assumed to have
    C. both females and males have desirable, and undesirable, traits that are not based on their sex
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Which of the following is MOST true of family power?
    A. Power creates reciprocal causation
    B. Power is static, residing primarily in one person
    C. Power is perceived similarly by each family member
    D. Power is a personal characteristic
    A. Power creates reciprocal causation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. In Sandy and Dana's couple relationship, Sandy accepts a role relationship in which Dana has the right to request Sandy's compliance. Which kind of power is Sandy giving to Dana?
    A. informational
    B. reward
    C. legitimate
    D. referent
    E. coercive
    C. legitimate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. Robert Blood and Don Wolfe's classic study, Husbands and Wives (1960), found that the balance of power in a marriage is related to the relative money, education level, and occupational prestige of each partner. This led them to propose
    A. that power is a systemic property
    B. instrumental and expressive roles
    C. the sesource theory of power
    D. syncratic and autonomic patterns of power use
    C. the resource theory of power
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. A power based that arises because one person is more dependent than the other or more concerned about keeping the relationship alive is called:
    A. the principle of leaset interest
    B. legitimate power
    C. referent power
    D. reward power
    A. the principle of leaset interest
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. An example of assertiveness as a family power process is
    A. "if you marry that woman, you'll not be mention in my will"
    B. "I would like you to call me if you are going to be late"
    C. "No one ever helps with the housework around here"
    D. "Pick up your room or you'll get a spanking"
    B."I would like you to call me if you are going to be late"
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. The power pattern in which each spouse has about equal authority but in different areas of life is called
    A. syncratic pattern
    B. referent power
    C. coercive power
    D. autonomic pattern
    D. autonomic pattern
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. Which of the following is an example of a syncratic pattern of marital power?
    A. The wife selects the car and the husband picks out wallpaper
    B. the husband selects the car and the wife picks out wallpaper
    C. the wife selects the car and the wallpaper
    D. both partners go to car dealers to select a new car and to the department store to pick out wallpaper.
    D. both partners go to car dealers to select a new car and to the department store to pick out wallpaper.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. Spouses express power in their interactions in several different ways. The interaction in which one partner is dominant and one is submissive is called
    A. neutrailzed symmetry
    B. complementary interaction
    C. competitive symmetry
    D. submissive symmetry
    B. complementary interaction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. The following dialogue is an example of a __________ marital power interaction. He says, what do you want to do tonight? She says I'm willing to go out if you like or stay home if you would rather. He says do you think we have enough money to go out right now she says we can stay home if you think we don't have enough money
    A. submissive symmetry
    B. competitive symmetry
    C. neutralized symmetry
    D. complementary interaction
    A. submissive symmetry
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. What tearm refers to how family demands affect work performance?
    A. none of these
    B. family to work influence
    C. time-based demands
    D. strain-based demands
    B. family to work influence
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. What term best describes this idea: the aim of the power interaction is to defeat the other-that is, a win-lose approach?
    A. complementary interaction
    B. competitive symmetry
    C. autonomic power pattern
    D. syncratic power pattern
    E. submissive symmetry
    B. competitive symmetry
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. One partner is dominant and one partner is submissive . this is
    A. competitive symmetry
    B. complementary interaction
    C. submissive symmetry
    D. autonomic power pattern
    E. syncractic power pattern
    B. complementary interaction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Each spouse has about equal authority but in different areas of life. this is
    A. syncractic power pattern
    B. autonomic power pattern
    C. submissive symmetry
    D. competivitve symmetry
    E. complementary interaction
    B. autonomic power pattern
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Authority is shared and decisions are made on a joint basis. This describes:
    A. complementary interaction
    B. autonomic power patternt
    C. syncratic power pattern
    D. submissive symmetry
    E. competitive symmetry
    C. syncratic power pattern
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Both spouses try to give control of the situation to the other. This describes:
    A. complementary interaction
    B. syncractic power pattern
    C. submissive symmetry
    D. autonomic power pattern
    E. competitive symmetry
    C. submissive symmetry
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Phrases like the opposite sex accentuate the difference between men and women and phrases like the other gender are less likely to reinforce gender stereotypes
    True
  51. Time-based demands focus on the idea that time at work means less time for family life
    True
  52. Gender role stereotypes are the individuals' sense of being male or female
    False
  53. Talcott Parson's theory was criticized because it focused on the problems of traditional family structure and ignored its positive aspects
    False
  54. Mental work inclues listening closely to a partners thoughts
    False
  55. With respect to contemporary gender roles, female and male traits are assumed not to be based on biological sex
    True
  56. The author determined that emotion work is a gender issue that looks differnt for men and women
    True
  57. Although many egalitarian couples believe that housework should be shared equally between husbands and wives in the US wives still bear almost all the responsibility for the housework
    True
  58. Gender-based language reinforces the misguided notion that men are more competent and ratoina than women
    True
  59. The unequal division of mental work affects men's marital satisfaction more than women's
    False
  60. Because people today may be caring for aging parents as well as their own children and because there are more types of families than in previous years, the work and family relationship is evenn more complex
    True
  61. American indian culture is generally more male-centered than Mexican American or African American cultures, as evidenced by the prohibition against women in tribal government
    False
  62. Gender identity is a sense of being male or female and what that means in todays society
    True
  63. Social learning and cognitive development theories were synthesized to describe the effect of positive labeling of gender-specific behaviors on a child's motivation to perform theses behaviors
    True
  64. Family systems that are rigid and enmeshed on the couple and family Map tend to be less open tand more dependent on one another
    True
  65. the Kind of power pattern in which one person is thought to have the normatively prescribed right to dteremine other family members behavior is called referent power
    False
  66. Family power is defined as the ability of one individual to change the behavior of the other family members
    True
  67. A mid-1990s Gallup Poll survey of people in 22 countries found that, across cultures, men were perceived as more aggressive, ambitious, and courageous than women
    True
  68. Feminist theory rejects traditional masculine characteristics
    False
  69. the resource theory of family power suggest that the balance of power in a marriage is related to the relative resources each spouse has
    True
  70. While personal income was related to a spouses power employment alone had no influence
    False
  71. Family power outcomes are commonly studied by observational research that measures family members assertive statments and their consequences
    True
  72. Based on their classic study Husbands and Wives (1960) Blood and Wolfe proposed the resource theory of power
    True
  73. Terry is more interested than Ricky in keeping their relationship alive. The principle of reward power predicts that Ricky will have more power in the relationship than Terry
    False
  74. You don't help out enough around the house this is an example of assertiveness
    False
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Card Set:
Chapter 7
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Exam 2
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