ch 17 pharm

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Author:
jackiedh
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77332
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ch 17 pharm
Updated:
2011-04-16 20:17:15
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ch 17 pharmacology
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  1. what is the most common form of cardiovascular disease?
    hypertension
  2. Diuretics
    Beta blockers (-olol)
    ACE inhibitors (the -prils)
    Calcium-channel blockers (the -pines)
    Angiotensin receptor blockers
    Alpha blockers
    these are all _________ meds that lower ____ _____
    • anti-hypertension
    • blood pressure
  3. what are the most common diuretics used?
    thiazide diuretics
  4. what diuretic interferes with sodium reabsorption in the distal tublue of the kidney and promote diuresis
    thiazide
  5. what is the most common ADE of thiazide diuretic?
    hypokalemia (pt will take K+ to counteract effect)
  6. what is the most common loop diuretic?
    furosemide (Lasix)
  7. what diuretic inhibits reabsorption of sodium and promote diuresis?
    furosemide (Lasix)
  8. which diuretics interfere with the potassium/sodium exchange in the collecting tubules and collecting duct to conserve potassium that is reabsorbed at the expense of sodium in the exchange system?
    potassium-sparing diuretics
  9. T/F Potassium-sparing diuretic/thiazide combination therapy is common
    true
  10. Spironolactone and triamterene are which type of diuretic?
    potassium-sparing diuretics
  11. which drugs mostly end in -olol?
    beta blockers
  12. what are drug inhibitors with beta-blockers?
    COX inhibitors, they antagonize antihypertensive effects
  13. what is the non-selective prototype beta-blocker? (hint: think olol)
    propranolol
  14. what are the agents of choice for bronchospasm?
    selective beta blockers
  15. labetalol is an alpha and beta _________ blocking agent
    adrenergic
  16. labetalol and _______ have the same effect, but labetalol has less peripheral resistance
    propanolol
  17. dihydropyridine is a ______ ______ blocking agent
    calcium channel
  18. what is a CCB?
    calcium channel blocker
  19. CCB's end in what?
    -pine
  20. which 2 CCBs are less likely to produce gingival hyperplasia? (think -pine)
    • amlodipine
    • isradipine
  21. how often is the maintenance schedule for someone taking calcium channel blockers?
    3 month recall
  22. is there a drug interaction with CCBs and COX inhibitors?
    NOPE!
  23. what does ACEI stand for?
    angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
  24. what are angiotensin inhibitors used for?
    to reduce blood pressure
  25. what do ACEI's do?
    prevent the formation of angiotensin II (which is a strong vasoconstrictor)
  26. _________ blocks vasoconstriction of coronary arteries
    lisinopril
  27. angiotensin 2 receptor antagonists block ____ receptors, preventing ________
    • A2
    • vasoconstriction
  28. T/F COX inhibitors CAN antagonize antihypertensive effects of this angiotensin inhibitors
    true
  29. which enzyme inhibitors end with -pril?
    angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
  30. what retards the growth of neuropathy in diabetes?
    ACEIs
  31. what is the agent of choice for management of hypertension in diabetes?
    ACEI
  32. t/f dry, hacking cough when taking ACEIs occurs more in semi-supine position
    false! SUPINE
  33. what is the prototype of angiotensin 2 receptor inhibitors?
    losartan (Cozaar)
  34. ________ causes vasoconstriction blocked, aldosterone secretion inhibited, which leads to lower blood pressure?
    losartan
  35. when should losartan not be used?
    during pregnancy (category D, 2nd and 3rd trimester)
  36. doxazosin and terazosin are what types of antihypertensives?
    alpha 1 adrenergic blockers
  37. which agents reduce blood pressure by a CNS-mediated action?(6, end in -in or -ine)
    • doxasozin
    • terazosin
    • clonidine
    • guanethidine
    • reserpine
    • hydralazine
  38. alpha adrenergic blockers have potential drug interactions with ________, it reduces ________ of local anesthetic
    • epinephrine
    • duration
  39. what is the drug of choice for hypertension associated with pregnancy???
    hydralazine
  40. what are common ADEs of anti-hypertensive drugs? (5)
    • urination-diuretics
    • fatigue-beta blockers
    • chronic dry cough- ACE inhibitors
    • gingival hyperplasia- some CCBs
    • postural hypotension and xerostomia- several classes
  41. how long does it usually take for gingival hyperplasia to become present when taking meds?
    1-2 months after initiation of therapy
  42. where does gingival hyperplasia affect the most?
    labial (facial) interdental papillae
  43. gingival hyperplasia is associated with _______ and ________ chronic inflammation
    • erythematous
    • edematous
  44. is someone with gingival hyperplasia usually in pain?
    yes
  45. T/F plaque control will prevent gingival hyperplasia when someone is taking meds
    FALSE!!!!! it will NOT!
  46. COX 1 INHIBITORS REDUCE EFFICACY OF MOST __________ DRUGS
    antihypertensive (sorry, didnt know the caps were on)
  47. what is an example of a pharmacologic antagonism?
    decreased effect of beta-adrenergic blockers with sympathomimetic amines
  48. nonselective beta blockers and epi hypertensive reaction is caused by _________ ____________ _________
    unopposed alpha-adrenergic stimulation
  49. alpha blockers plus epinephrine leads to _______ ________
    excessive hypotension
  50. pilocarpine may have additive effect with ___________ leading to hypotension
    antihypertensives
  51. what does CAD stand for?
    coronary artery disease
  52. ________ impedes the supply of oxygenated blood when there is an increased demand for oxygen in the cardiac muscle
    CAD
  53. what CAD is a TEMPORARY deficiency of oxygen to a portion of the myocardium?
    angina pectoris
  54. what is a PERMANENT deficiency of oxygen to a portion of the myocardium resulting in necrosis(death)?
    MI! myocardial infarction

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