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2011-04-12 16:53:13

lecture exam 3
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  1. What are the finctions of the lymphatic system?
    constantly monitors blood and responds to antigens. the immune response

    helps to balance fluid levels between blood vessels and interstitial spaces.

    transports lipids and lipid soluble vitamins from gastointestional tract to blood stream

    assists in the replication and maturation of lymphocytes.
  2. What is lymph?
    excess interstitial fluid and solutes that have escaped from the blood

    it may also contain foreign material that has entered the interstitial fluid
  3. describe the flow of lymph from its beggining at blind lymph capillaries until it is returned to the blood circulatory system.
  4. thoracic duct
    begins at thecisterna chyli, lies directly anterior to vertebral bodies in abdomen, passes through aortic opening of diaphragm, ascends to junction with left internal jugular vein and left subclavian vein
  5. right lymphatic duct
    about 1.25 cm. in length, courses along the medial border of the Scalenus anterior at the root of the neck. In most cases it ends in the right subclavian vein
  6. cisterna chyle
    The cisterna chyli (or cysterna chyli, and etymologically more correct, receptaculum chyli) is a dilated sac at the lower end of the thoracic duct into which lymph from the intestinal trunk and two lumbar lymphatic trunks flow
  7. what are lacteals?
    tiney lyphatic vessels in wall of GI tract it absorbs fats and oils
  8. why is the lymphatic system considered to be an open system? the blood circulatory sysstem a closed one?
    lymphatic: stuff comes from and f=goes to the outside

    blood: stays inside
  9. name locate and function
    lymph nodes
    A lymph node is a small ball-shaped organ of the immune system, distributed widely throughout the body including the armpit and stomach/gut and linked by lymphatic vessels. Lymph nodes are garrisons of B, T, and other immune cells. Lymph nodes are found all through the body, and act as filters or traps for foreign particles. They are important in the proper functioning of the immune system.
  10. name locate function? spleen
    it is located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. It removes old red blood cells and holds a reserve of blood in case of hemorrhagic shock while also recycling iroN

    • white pulp- moniters blood entering spleen for antigens
    • red pulp- stores red blood cells and platelets, destroys worn out red blood cells, and platelets.
  11. name locate function- thymus
    The thymus is a specialized organ of the immune system. The only known function of the thymus is the production and "education" of T-lymphocytes (T cells), which are critical cells of the adaptive immune system. The thymus is composed of two identical lobes and is located anatomically in the anterior superior mediastinum, in front of the heart and behind the sternum.
  12. name locate function- tonsils
    The human palatine tonsils and the nasopharyngeal tonsil are lymphoepithelial tissues located near the oropharynx and nasopharynx, although most commonly the term "tonsils" refers to the palatine tonsils [that can be seen in the back of the throat]. These immunocompetent tissues represent the defense mechanism of first line against ingested or inhaled foreign pathogens.
  13. function of respiratory system?
    • pulmonary ventilation= breathing
    • external respiration= gas exchange between air and blood
  14. describe the gross anatomy of the right and left lung
    • right lung= 3 lobes, upper middle and lower.
    • left lung= upper and lower lobe (2)

    • apex- just deep to clavicle
    • base- rests on diaphragm
    • hilus- indentation on medical surface
    • root of lung- collection of blood vessels, bronchi, lymph vessels, nerves entering or leaving the lungs.
  15. describe the flow of air from the nose to the lungs
    nares of the nose> nasal cavity>Nasal conchae> internal nares> pharynx> nasopharynx> oropharynx> laryngopharynx> Larynx> trachea> Primary bronchi> bronchial tree> bronchioles> terminal bronchioles> respiratory bronchiles> alveolar ducts> alveoli> alveolar wall.
  16. Nose and linked air passages (called nasal cavities)
    • Mouth
    • Larynx (LAR-ingks), or voice box
    • Trachea (TRA-ke-ah), or windpipe
    • Tubes called bronchial tubes or bronchi, and their branches
    • Air first enters your body through your nose or mouth, which wets and warms the air. (Cold, dry air can irritate your lungs.) The air then travels through your voice box and down your windpipe. The windpipe splits into two bronchial tubes that enter your lungs.
    • A thin flap of tissue called the epiglottis (ep-i-GLOT-is) covers your windpipe when you swallow. This prevents food or drink from entering the air passages that lead to your lungs.
  17. describe the wat the structure of the walls of the passageways change on the way from the trachea to the alveoli.
    • trachea> pseudostratified, ciliated epithilium and 16-20 c-shaped cartilages connected by fibroelastic CT, and closed in back with smooth muscle.
    • bronchioles: lines with simple columnar epithelium or simple cubodal epithelium
    • alveolar wall: simple squamous epithelium
  18. describe the conducting zone
    the conducting zone consists of the larynx, trachea, primary bronchi, & bronchial tree
  19. describe the respiratory zone
    respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoili(3oo mill), alveolar wall
  20. respiratory membrane
    thin wall between alveolar lumen and blood

    The respiratory membrane consists of the alveolar and capillary walls. Gas exchange occurs across this membrane. Characteristics of this membrane
  21. type 1 cells
    Type I cells are thin, squamous epithelial cells that constitute the primary cell type of the alveolar wall. Oxygen diffusion occurs across these cells.
  22. type 2 cells
    Type II cells are cuboidal epithelial cells that are interspersed among the type I cells. Type II cells secrete pulmonary surfactant (a phospholipid bound to a protein) that reduces the surface tension of the moisture that covers the alveolar walls. A reduction in surface tension permits oxygen to diffuse more easily into the moisture. A lower surface tension also prevents the moisture on opposite walls of an alveolus or alveolar duct from cohering and causing the minute airway to collapse.
  23. describe the flow of the alimentary canal (digestive tract) from mouth to anal canal.
    oral cavity> oropharynx> laryngopharynx> esophagus> stomach> small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine, (cecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon rectum) anal canal. anus.
  24. acccessory organs of digesxtive tract
    teeth and toungue, taste buds,
  25. ingestion:
    consumption: the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating
  26. propulsion
    The action of driving or pushing forward
  27. defacation:
    the elimination of fecal waste through the anus
  28. what muscles are involved in peristalsis?
    In much of the gastrointestinal tract, smooth muscles contract in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave which forces a ball of food (called a bolus while in the esophagus and gastrointestinal tract and chyme in the stomach) along the gastrointestinal tract.
  29. name and locate the salivary glands
  30. what is saliva?
    Watery liquid secreted into the mouth by the salivary glands.
  31. esophageal hiatus
    The esophageal hiatus is situated in the muscular part of the diaphragm at the level of the tenth thoracic vertebra, and is elliptical in shape. It is placed superior, anterior, and slightly left of the aortic hiatus, and transmits the esophagus, the vagus nerve, the left inferior phrenic vessels, and some small esophageal arteries from left gastric vessels. The right crus of the diaphragm loops around forming a sling around the esophagus. Upon inspiration, this sling would constrict the esophagus, forming an anatomical sphincter that prevents stomach contents from refluxing up the esophagus when intra-abdominal pressure rises during inspiration.
  32. cardiac orifice
    The orifice where the esophagus enters the stomach.
  33. cardiac sphincter
    the valve between the distal end of the esophagus and the stomach; the physiological sphincter at the esophagogastric junction
  34. cardia
    • 1. the cardiac opening.
    • 2. the cardiac part of the stomach, surrounding the esophagogastric junction and distinguished by the presence of cardiac glands.
    • dorland()
  35. fundus of stomach
    the part of the stomach to the left and above the level of the opening of the esophagus.
  36. pyloric sphincter
    The pyloric sphincter, or valve, is a strong ring of smooth muscle at the end of the pyloric canal and lets food pass from the stomach to the duodenum.
  37. gastric glands
    gastric gland, any of the branched tubules in the inner lining of the stomach that secrete gastric juice and protective mucus.
  38. gastric pits
    Gastric pits are indentations in the stomach which denote entrances to the tubular shaped gastric glands. They are deeper in the pylorus than they are in the other parts of the stomach
  39. duodenum
    • The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine. It is located between the stomach and the middle part of the small intestine, or jejunum.
    • After foods mix with stomach acid, they move into the duodenum, where they mix with bile from the gallbladder and digestive juices from the pancreas.
    • Absorption of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients begins in the duodenum
  40. jejunum
    mid section of sm. intestine
  41. ileum
    ileum, the final and longest segment of the small intestine. It is specifically responsible for the absorption of vitamin B12 and the reabsorption of conjugated bile salts. The ileum is about 4 metres (13 feet) long and extends from the jejunum (the middle section of the small intestine) to the ileocecal valve, which empties into the colon (large intestine)
  42. cecum
    The cecum or caecum (from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is a pouch, connecting the ileum with the ascending colon of the large intestine. It is separated from the ileum by the ileocecal valve (ICV) or Bauhin's valve, and is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine. It is also separated from the colon by the cecocolic junction. The appendix is connected to the cecum
  43. ileocecal valve
    a sphincter muscle situated at the junction of the small intestine (ileum) and the large intestine. Its critical function is to limit the reflux of colonic contents into the ileum.
  44. vermiform appendix
    a blind-ended tube connected to the cecum (or caecum), from which it develops embryologically. The cecum is a pouchlike structure of the colon. The appendix is located near the junction of the small intestine and the large intestine.
  45. colon
    The colon is the last part of the digestive system in most vertebrates; it extracts water and salt from solid wastes before they are eliminated from the body, and is the site in which flora-aided (largely bacteria) fermentation of unabsorbed material occurs. Unlike the small intestine, the colon does not play a major role in absorption of foods and nutrients. However, the colon does absorb water, potassium and some fat soluble vitamins
  46. rectum
    the final straight portion of the large intestine terminating in the anus.
  47. internal anal sphincter
    The internal sphincter is part of the inner surface of the canal; it is composed of concentric layers of circular muscle tissue and is not under voluntary control. The external sphincter is a layer of voluntary (striated) muscle encircling the outside wall of the anal canal
  48. external anal shpincter
    The external sphincter is a layer of voluntary (striated) muscle encircling the outside wall of the anal canal and anal opening. One can cause it to expand and contract at will
  49. what is a hiatal hernia
    condition in which a portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest, through an opening in the diaphragm. The diaphragm is the sheet of muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen
  50. discuss the wall of the sm intestine which give it more surface area
    The lining of the small intestine includes microscopic folds to increase its surface area in all vertebrates
  51. how do substances move along in the sm intestine? large intestine
  52. why is the liver called a gland?
    it produces bile, bile is a fluid that both aids in digestion and transports fats as well as waste products into the intestine
  53. the liver is composted of what kind of tissue
    CT capsule, and visceral peritoneum
  54. what is a hepatocyte
    a cell of the main tissue of the liver. Hepatocytes make up 70-80% of the liver's cytoplasmic mass. These cells are involved in:

    • Protein synthesis
    • Protein storage
    • Transformation of carbohydrates
    • Synthesis of cholesterol, bile salts and phospholipids
    • Detoxification, modification, and excretion of exogenous and endogenous substances
    • The hepatocyte also initiates formation and secretion of bile.
  55. functions of liver;
    produce bile, detoxifies drugs and other substances, stores nutrients/minerals and releases them when needed, produces blood plasma protien, helps to recycle components of RBC's
  56. Name 4 lobes of liver
    • Right lobe; cuadate lobe, quadrate lobe
    • Left lobe
  57. hepatitis?
    inflamation of the liver
  58. cirrhosis
    Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver and poor liver function as a result of chronic liver disease
  59. describe the flow of blood through the liver and bile out of the liver.
    blood from branches of hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery enter sinusoids and move slowly between the cords of hepatocytes until it empties into the centrel vein.

    Blood flows through the sinusoids and empties into the central vein of each lobule. The central veins coalesce into hepatic veins, which leave the liver and empty into the inferior vena cava.

    The bile produced in the liver is collected in bile canaliculi, which merge to form bile ducts. Within the liver, these ducts are called intrahepatic (within the liver) bile ducts, and once they exit the liver they are considered extrahepatic (outside the liver). The intrahepatic ducts eventually drain into the right and left hepatic ducts, which merge to form the common hepatic duct. The cystic duct from the gallbladder joins with the common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct.
  60. what are sinusoids?
    A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein
  61. what is the function of bile?
    Bile is a composition of the following materials: water (85%), bile salts (10%), mucus and pigments (3%), fats (1%), inorganic salts (0.7%) and cholesterin (0.3%

    bile increases the absorption of fats
  62. what is the function of the gallbladder?
    concentrates bil produces by the liver and stores it.
  63. how do gallbladder and liver work together?
    Bile is produced in the liver and passed to the gallbladder by means of a tube called the cystic duct where it is stored

    The bile carries waste products away from the liver and is stored in the gallbladder until it is needed to emulsify fats in the duodenum or first part of the small intestine. The gallbladder contracts and expels bile into the duodenum as soon as food has been sent there by the stomach.
  64. why is the pancreas considered a mixed gland?
    exocrine gland: acini=acinar cells- secrete pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes into duodenum; cells lining the pancreatic ducts secrete bicarbonate ion

    endocrine gland: beta and alpha cells in pancreatic islets secretes insulin and glucagon into the blood to controll blood sugar levels
  65. describe the flow of pancreatic juice from the pancreas to the small intestine.
    juices from the mail pancreatic duct enter duodenum with the bile, an accessory pancreatic duct enters duodenum directly through a minor duodenal papilla. The entry of bile and pancreatic juice is controlled by a muscular valve called the Spincter of Oddi . Then enters the duodenum