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influence over other
Personal Leadership Style
how you choose to manage
Leadership across cultures
- Europe: people oriented
- Japan: Group oriented
- US: profitability
authority that a manager has by virtue of his or her position in an organizational hierarchy
- The ability of a manager to give or withhold tangible and intangible
power to punish
power based on skill
Power from respect
process of giving workers at all levels more authority to make decisions and the responsibility for their outcomes
- Consideration: behavior indicating that a manager trusts,
- respects, and cares about subordinates
- Initiating structure: behavior that managers engage in to ensure that work gets done, subordinates perform
- their jobs acceptably, and the organization is efficient and effective
- Whether or not a manager is an effective leader is the result of the interplay between what the manager is like, what he does, and the situation in which leadership
- takes place
Personal characteristics can influence leader effectiveness
want to be liked
Want subordinates to perform highly to get task done
House's Path Goal Theory
A contingency model of leadership proposing the effective leaders can motivate subordinates by:
- 1.Clearly identifying the outcomes workers are trying to obtain from their jobs.
- 2.Rewarding workers for high-performance and goal
- attainment with the outcomes they desire
- 3.Clarifying the paths to the attainment of the
- goals, remove obstacles to performance, and express confidence in worker’s ability.
House's Path Goal Theory
Directive behaviors: set goals, assign tasks, show how to do things
Supportive behavior: look out for the worker’s best interest
Participative behavior: give subordinates a say in matters that affect them
Achievement-oriented behavior: Setting very challenging goals, believing in worker’s abilities
leadership is unnecessary
- Charismatic approach (enthusiasm)
- Developmental consideration behavior (supporting)
- Intellectual Stimulation (big picture)
- Makes subordinates aware of the importance of
- their jobs and performance to the organization by providing feedback to the worker
Makes subordinates aware of their own needs for personal growth and development
Motivates workers to work for the good of the organization, not just themselves
Subordinates motivated because leader rewards them or punishes them
Group as performance enhancers
- 1.Ability to bounce ideas off one another
- 2.Correct each other’s errors
- 3.Bring more new ideas to bear on problems
- 4.Accomplish projects beyond the scope of individuals
- 6.More people = higher quality outputs
- Whole > sum of its parts
formed to meet own goals
Top Management team
A group composed of the CEO, the president, and the heads of the most important departments
research and development team
- A team whose members have the expertise and experience needed to develop new
A group composed of subordinates who report to the same supervisor, also called a department or unit
- A committee of managers or non-managerial employees from various departments or
- divisions who meet to solve a specific, mutual problem; also called an “ad hoc”
Self Managed work team
A group of employees who supervise their own activities and monitor the quality of the goods and services they provide Empowerment
never meet face to face
- A group of managers or other employees brought together from different departments to perform a task
- –Improved diversity
- The characteristics and processes that affect how a group or team functions.
- •Group roles
- •Group development
- •Group norms-conformity vs. deviance
- •Group cohesiveness
- •Normally, small groups (2 to 9 members) interact better and tend to be more motivated
- •Larger groups can be used when more resources are needed and division of labor is possible.
The set of behaviors and tasks that a group member is expected to perform because of his position in the group
who motivates group
Stages of group development
- •Forming: Group members get to know each other and reach common goals.
- •Storming: Group members disagree on direction and leadership. Managers need to be sure the
- conflict stays focused.
- •Norming: Close ties and consensus begin to develop between group members.
- •Performing: The group begins to do its real work.
- •Adjourning: Only for task forces that are temporary.
- that these steps take time!
Conformity and Deviance
- •Members conform to norms to obtain rewards, imitate respected members, and because they feel
- the behavior is right.
- •Conformity and deviance must be balanced for high performance from the group.
- allows for new
- ideas in the group
- •Group Cohesiveness : The degree to which members are attracted to their group
- •Three major consequences:
- –Level of participation
- –Level of conformity to group norms
- –Emphasis on group goal accomplishment