Chemistry: (c) Chemical Bonding, Polarity and Naming
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When do molecular compounds from?
when electrons are shared between atoms (nonmetal w/ nonmetal)
What is the sharing of electrons called?
a covalent bond
What is the composition for an ionic compound vs an molecular compund?
- ionic: metal with nonmetal
- molecular: nonmetal with nonmetal
What is the bond type for an ionic compound vs an molecular compund?
- ionic: ionic (tranfer e-)
- molecular: covalent ( share e-)
What is the smallest unit for an ionic compound vs an molecular compund?
- ionic: formula unit
- molecular: molecule
What are five properties of ionic compounds?
- most dissolve in water
- conduct electricity when melted or dissolved
- strong bonds
- hard, brittle solids
- high melting and boiling points
What are five properties of molecular compounds?
- only some molecules dissolve in watter
- do not conduct electricity
- weaker bonds
- soft solids, liquids or gases
- low melting and boiling points
What does VSEPR stand for?
Valance Shell Electron Pair repulsion Theory
What does VSEPR theory explain?
electron pairs repel eachother, so molecules adjust their shapes to get electron pairs as far apart as possible
What is a molecular shape with two atoms in front, one to the back and one above called?
What is a molecular shape with two atoms in the front and one to the back called?
What is the molecular shape with two atoms attached called?
What is a molecular shape with two atoms to the side in a flat shape called?
When covalent bonds are polar, are they shared evenly or unevenly?
What is the difference between polar and nonpolar molecules?
- polar have 2 distinct sides (+) and (-)
- nonpolar are the same all around
What is electronegativity?
the tendency for an atom to attract electrons to itself in a covalent bond
If electronegativity increases, the attraction for electrons ___________ (increase or decrease)
Electronegativity ___________ (increases/decreases) as you go down a group? Why?
- As you go down a group, the number of principle energy levels increase, so the size of the atom increases as well. There is less attraction so protons have less ability to pull in outer electrons.
Electronegativity ___________ (increases/decreases) going left to right. Why?
- As you go across a period, more electrons are added to the same energy level, so the size of the atom decreases. There is more attraction so protons have more ability to pull in outer electrons.
What does the electronegativity difference have to be for the molecule to be polar?
.4 and greater
Which molecule shapes can be nonpolar with polar bonds?
linear or tetrahedral if all arrows are pointing away
Which molecular shape can never be nonpolar?
When it comes to polarity and solubility, like dissolves ___________ (like or unlike). How?
- The positive ends of H2O attract the negative ends in NaCl and pull them away and vice versa.
What two kinds of substances can H2O dissolve?
what is the prefix used and when is it used when naming acids?
- when it is the acid of a ion from the front of the periodic ctable
What does the Octet Rule say?
atoms react to aquire stable electron configurations of a noble gas
What is the difference between compounds and mixtures?
- compounds are chemicals combined.
- mixtures are just physically touching
What is an ionic bond?
attraction that holds oppositely charged ions together
which metals do you have to use the roman numerals for?
transition metals and Sn and Pb
Which transition metals do you not have to use the roman numerals with? What are their charges?
Ag (+1) Zn (+2) Cd (+2)
What is the order of the ite/ate pairs?
- per _____ ate
- hypo _______ ite
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