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- The broad context of interaction
- Studies structures larger than groups or organizations
The level of organizations and institutions
Social interaction between individuals or within groups
A grouping of different statuses that belong to an individual or group.
The status that determines the social worth and perception of the other statuses involved.
A status that is earned.
- A status you are born with or into.
- Very often visible; if not – then markers may be used.
Anything used to denote status in society.
Where two or more statuses are not viewed with the same social worth by most members of society.
The sets of behaviors that are contained within social statuses.
When different aspects of a role conflict with each other.
Institution as a Process
Any activity or icon that is recognized by the majority of the members of a society or group.
The process by which these social structures are created.
- Eye Contact
- Public distance – 12 feet or more
- Social Distance – 4 to 12 feet
- Personal Distance – 1.5 to 4 feet
- Intimate Distance – Less than 1.5 feet
How people handle disability, incapacity, and disfigurement.
Deference & Demeanor
The rules governing social status.
Presentation of Self
The combination of stigma and deference and demeanor in our daily life.
We do impression management to convey the proper image of self.
Front Stage & Back Stage
- What we present to the public is called the “front stage”.
- We do impression management to convey the proper image of self.
- When no one is present or we are alone we inhabit the “back stage”.
The tacit agreement to ignore aberrations in role performance.
- (Harold Garfinkel)
- Breaking rules to observe the social effect that occurs.
Social Construction of Reality
- (Berger & Luckman )
- Thomas Theorem – If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences.
Social Effects of Violating Rules
What holds it together?
A standard or model or pattern regarded as typical.
- It is simply violating a norm.
- Since norms vary by culture and society, then so do the behaviors that constitute deviance.
Violation of a legal code.
How do norms make society possible?
- Language normalizes thinking,
- Routine allows complex activity.
- Practice makes perfect.
- Norms allow predictable behavior (rational).
- Norms allow measurement of progress, success, compliance (rational).
Informal social control
Those forms without a written code that is to be enforced are informal.
Formal social control
- Systems of Specialized Agencies.
- Standard Techniques.
- General Predictability of Universal Sanctions.
Agent of Social Control
Anyone who attempts to manipulate others behavior through the use of formal sanctions.
- Who we associate with determine our norms.
- We develop an excess of definitions favorable to the behavior.
- Learn from family, peer groups, neighborhoods, subcultures.
- (Reckless; Hirschi and Gottfredson)
- Inner Controls
- Outer Controls
- (Sykes and Matza)
- Most of us get labels pinned on to us – think high school grouping, family label.
Techniques of Neutralization
- a.Denial of Responsibility
- b.Denial of Injury
- c.Denial of a Victim
- d.Condemnation of the condemners
- e.Appeal to a higher loyalty
- There are cultural goals all of us wish to attain to some extent.
- Power, wealth, prestige, happiness.
- There are limited institutional means to attain these goals.
Adaptation Goals Means
- Conformity Yes Yes
- Innovation Yes No
- Ritualism No Yes
- Retreatism No No
The difference between the goals and the means to attain them (opportunity) causes strain; if the rules seem illegitimate then the result may be anomie, or the sense of normlessness.
White Collar Crime
(Sutherland 1949) – usually economic crime committed by those in positions of trust.
Decline in violent crimes
- Crimes nationwide have dropped in frequency with the exception of acquaintance abuse.
- While a portion of this may be due to stricter sentencing guidelines, crimes in unaffected areas have dropped by the same amount.
Medicalization of Deviance
Deviance that can be “cured” by intervention is an advantage to the medical profession.
Social interaction within social space
Social Space- the space within which people interact.
Mechanical & Organic Solidarity
*Know the equivalent terms used by Tonnes
- Mechanical-People that live closely among each other and share many of the same values and interests.
- A community where everyone knows each other.
- The survival of the community relies on cooperation and trust.
- Organic-Bonded by mutual dependencies – the division of labor.
- Gemeinschaft – intimate community
Gesellschaft – impersonal association
- Culture-Social structure will vary by culture .
- Social Class-Hierarchical positioning which grants different privileges and obligations.
- Social Status -Positioning within a group or institution.
- Point of the Stanford Prison-Experiment
- How you conform and follow the roles once you have accepted a social status.
- Even if you disagree, you make it logical in your head.
- Your roles become reality.
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