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2011-04-04 22:53:49

Identifications Quarter 3
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  1. the Union general who led the North to victory during the Civil War. As a President, however, he was weak, ineffective, and “bought” during his campaign. He took large sums of money before and after his presidency, which is not illegal. His presidency was filled with many scandals and a financial panic and depression in 1873.
    U.S. Grant
  2. was a politician from New York who was the leader of the Stalwart faction, -they were regulars, traditional supporters, and in favor of spoils (giving people jobs if they voted for them) of the Republican Party.
    Roscoe Conkling
  3. the prosecutor who put William Marcy Tweed (“Boss Tweed”) in jail and dissolved the Tweed Ring. He also ran for the presidential election, in the disputed election of 1876. Hayes wins.
    Samuel Tilden
  4. in the election of 1884 the country finds out about his shock affair and he has a son! He is the first Democratic president in 28 years, since Bucanhon. During his presidency he did laissez-fair: hands off. He wanted to reduce the tariff, which makes big business unhappy. Also, there was the Dawes Act, Interstate Commerce Act + Interstate Commerce Commission, and Sherman Anit-Trust Act.
    Grover Cleveland
  5. (also known as a patronage system) where a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory.
    Spoils System
  6. Railroad construction company, formed by insiders of the transcontinental Union Pacific Railway. Paid themselves (ex) $50,000 a mile when the construction only cost $30,000 a mile. To not get caught, they distributed stock to congressmen as bribes. They were finally exposed in 1872.
    Credit Mobilier
  7. in the Republican Party those who were the regulators, and supporters of traditions, like spoil system.
  8. 1883, classified federal jobs in levels and backed them with exams. Nonpartisan Civil Service Commission was appointed. It made it illegal for party bosses to asses fees for paychecks. 15,000 jobs were classified under Chester Arthur.
    Pendleton Act
  9. Cartoonist who attacked “Boss Tweed” in a series of cartoons that appeared in Harpers Weekly in 1872.
    Thomas Nast
  10. was favored Republican candidate of the “half-breeds”. Reformers thought he was tattooed with too many political villainies. “Mulligan letters” were written by Blaine linking him to a corrupt deal. He made some republicans go to the democratic side: “mugwumps”. Secretary of State for Garfield.
    James G. Blaine
  11. “dark-horse” candidate for 1880 by republicans. “Boatman Jim” had struggled up from poverty, and was a Civil War officer. There wasn’t huge on real controversies in campaign. Was shot by deranged office seeker and vice president and stalwart Chester Arthur takes over the presidency.
    James A. Garfield
  12. 23rd president, former senator and lawyer, defeated Grover Cleveland even though didn’t have popular vote. Submitted a treaty to annex Hawaii to the Senate, but Cleveland later withdrew it. Signed many appropriations bills for naval and internal improvements. Sherman Anti-trust act passed under his term but never used. A “forgettable president” Grandson of William Henry Harrison
    Benjamin Harrison
  13. helped elect Grant. Appealed to veterans of Civil War reminding them of how horrible the war was.
    "Bloody shirt"
  14. 1875, bribed government official to give whiskey distillers stamps that said distillers paid excise tax on whiskey. The distillers didn’t pay excise tax and instead paid government officials directly. Treasury robbed of millions of dollars.
    Whiskey Ring
  15. Republicans who supported civil service reform and supported the protective tariff. They wanted some change and supported James Blaine. Only 1/2 loyal to old republicans.
  16. Group that left Republican party to become Democrats; this group heavily favored civil service reform and mistrusted James Blaine as the presidential nominee, as the group suspected his involvement in past corruption.
  17. Liberal Republicans nominated Horace Greeley for presidency in 1872. He was editor of the New York Tribune, didn’t make good political decisions. Democrats supported Greeley. Republicans later renominated Grant. Greeley lost election in a month along with his wife, mind, and life.
    Horace Greeley
  18. was the 19th President of the United States (1877-1881). As president, he oversaw the end of Reconstruction and the United States' entry into the Second Industrial Revolution. Hayes was a reformer who began the efforts that would lead to civil service reform and attempted, unsuccessfully, to reconcile the divisions that had led to the American Civil Warfifteen years earlier.
    Rutherford B. Hayes
  19. served as the 21st President of the United States (1881–1885). Arthur was a member of the Republican Party and worked as a lawyer before becoming the 20th Vice President under James Garfield.Garfield was murdered and Arthur was sworn in as president, serving until March 4, 1885.
    Chester A. Arthur
  20. refers to the era of rapid economic and population growth in the United States during the post-Civil War and post-Reconstruction eras of the late 19th century. The term "Gilded Age" was coined by Mark Twain. “Golden Age” Everything looked good on the surface, but if you looked deeper there were many corrupt problems.
    Gilded Age
  21. "Boss" Tweed – was an American politician most notable for being the "boss" ofTammany Hall, the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in the politics of 19th century New York City and State. Corruption with paying people and controlling their votes.
    Tweed Ring
  22. The Fourth Coinage Act was enacted by the United States Congress in 1873 and embraced the gold standard and demonetized silver. Western mining interests and others who wanted silver in circulation years later labeled this measure the "Crime of '73"
    "Crime of '73"
  23. also known as the Corrupt Bargain, refers to a purported informal, unwritten deal that settled the disputed 1876 U.S. Presidential election and ended Congressional ("Radical") Reconstruction. Through it, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes was awarded the White House over Democrat Samuel J. Tilden on the understanding that Hayes would remove the federal troops that were propping up Republican state governments in South Carolina, Floridaand Louisiana.
    Compromise of 1877
  24. He built his wealth in shipping and railroads and was one of the richest Americans in history. He had many trusts in the railroad industry
    Cornelius Vanderbilt.
  25. was an American inventor, scientist, and businessman who developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and the light bulb.
    Thomas Edison
  26. a financier and banker who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time. Also, in a financial panic in 1907, TR went to him for a loan because he was so rich and in return would not bust up his industry.
    J.P. Morgan
  27. Oliver Kelley created the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry, and at first the organization was educational and social, but it gradually became more political, targeting railroads. It played an important role by demonstrating that farmers were capable of organizing and advocating a political agenda and it lead to the Farmers Alliances and Populist Party.
  28. written by Andrew Carnegie who stressed the importance of giving back to the people. Noblese obligue implies that with wealth, power, and prestige come responsibilities.
    Gospel of Wealth
  29. organized in 1866, had 600,000 members, including skilled, unskilled and famers. It focused on social reform, and things like the eight-hour day and arbitration of industrial disputes. Fell apart during the depression of 1870.
    National Labor Union
  30. financer who was the most adept. He boomed and busted the stocks of the Erie, the Kansas Pacific, the Union Pacific, and the Texas and Pacific for 30 years.
    Jay Gould
  31. “the steel king”, integrated every phase of his steel-making operation. His minders mined the ore, and he shipped it and his railroads delivered it to his factories. He had “vertical integration” and his goal improved efficiency by making supplies more reliable, controlling the quality of the product at all stages of production, and eliminating middle-man fees.
    Andrew Carnegie
  32. an Irish-American with nimble wit and fluent tongue, led the Knights of Labor and won a number of strikes for the eight-hour day.
    Terence Powderly
  33. invented in the 1850s, a method of making cheap steel. William Kelly, a Kentucky manufacturer of iron kettles, discovered that cold air blown on red-hot iron caused the metal to become white hot by igniting the carbon and thus eliminating impurities.
    Bessemer Process
  34. Post Civil War it tried to become an industrial economy. Provide raw materials for factories in the North. Henry W. Grady endorsed this with the Atlanta Constitution. They wanted to out-do north economically.
    New South
  35. Chicago, May 4, 1886. Dynamite bomb thrown that killed or injured several dozen people, including police. 8 anarchists rounded up, 5 sentenced to death-one committed suicide. Other 3 went to jail.
    Haymarket Riot
  36. Invented the telephone accidentally while trying to invent a device to help deft people in 1876
    Alexander G. Bell
  37. Had many trusts with oil. Horizontal integration where he bought all oil companies squashing other competition. Formed Standard Oil Company in 1870. Later helped repair Versailles Palace in Paris.
    John D. Rockefeller
  38. was an English-born American labor union leader and a key figure in American labor history. Gompers founded the American Federation of Labor (AFL), and served as that organization's president from 1886 to 1894 and from 1895 until his death in 1924.
    Samuel Gompers
  39. United States Steel Corporation is an integrated steel producer with major production operations in the United States, Canada, and Central Europe. The company is the world's tenth largest steel producer ranked by sales.
    U.S.S. Steel
  40. is an agreement between an employer and an employee in which the employee agrees, as a condition of employment, not to be a member of a labor union.
    Yellow-Dog Contract
  41. was one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States. It was founded in 1886 by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor, a national labor association. Samuel Gompers was elected president.
    American Federation of Labor (AFL)
  42. a Sioux Indian who was in the Battle of Little Big Horn against George Custer. In “Custer’s Last Stand” the Indians won which caused the army to raise troops against the Indians.
    Sitting Bull
  43. leader of the Apache tribe. After the adults were slaughtered and the kids sold to slavery he became not peaceful, fighting against Mexicans and white settlers.
  44. a very peaceful tribe in Idaho, lead by Chief Joseph. They tried to march to Canada but were caught by U.S. troops. Chief Joseph’s famous line, “I will fight no more”.
    Nez Perce
  45. an Indian dance that was supposed to take them to a better place, frightened the whites. In the Battle of Wounded Knee (the last Indian battle), whites saw the ghost dance as a war dance and attacked the peaceful Indians.
    Ghost Dance
  46. badly drawn, through state legislation they strove to regulate railway rates and the storage fees charged by railroads and by the operators of warehouses and grain elevators. Bitterly fought through the high courts by well-paid lawyers of the “interests”. The influence faded.
    Granger Laws
  47. Led the seventh cavalry against the Indians. He thought he was a civil war hero and he underestimated the amount of Indians here. At the Battle of Little Big Horn, also known as Custer’s Last Stand, he and his cavalry were completely wiped out.
    George A. Custer
  48. she wrote A Century of Dishonor, which told of the crimes we had committed against the Native Americans.
    Helen Hunt Jackson
  49. Sent to Dakota Territory(present day Oklahoma) where they were promised they’d be left alone. Indian Agents seized Indian Land. During Civil War Sioux of Minnesota, facing starvation, rose up and killed hundreds of white settlers. Federal troops crushed uprising and 40 Sioux were hung. 1866 Sioux killed 81 soldiers attempting to block Bozeman Trail. 1876 Custer and his men were defeated by the Sioux under Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse. 1890 Wounded Knee was the last battle. Sioux were reviving culture through Ghost Dances and Indian Agents thought they were War dances. White’s attack and killed 200 indians.
    Sioux (La Cata)
  50. 1887 Tried to break up Native American tribes and assimilate them into American society. Distributed Native American reservation lands among individual members of the tribe to form a system of agriculture more similar too the white man’s. Gave Native Americans 160 acres of farm land or 320 acres of grazing land. Effect was to nearly destroy the reservation system, as the remaining tribal lands were opened up for whites, never worked because indians wanted to remain nomadic warriors.
    Dawes Severalty Act
  51. 1880s, North and South, White and black these sponsored picnics and other social gatherings like the grangers. Wanted to break strangling grip of railroads and manufacturers. By 1890, the Farmers’ alliance had a million members. They later formed the populist party.
    Famers' Alliance
  52. Leader of The National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry (the Grange) from Minnesota who worked as clerk in Washington. Formed Laborer to Husbandman and Maid to Matron. The Grange had 800,000 members from Midwest and South.
    Oliver H. Kelley
  53. was the chief of the Wal-lam-wat-kain (Wallowa) band of Nez Perce during GeneralOliver O. Howard's attempt to forcibly remove his band and the other "non-treaty" Nez Perce to areservation in Idaho, known for humanitarianism.
    Chief Joseph
  54. Apachean peoples formerly ranged over eastern Arizona, northwestern Mexico, New Mexico, Texas and the southern Great Plains. The Apachean tribes were historically very powerful, opposing the Spaniards and Mexicans for centuries, Geronimo was leader.
  55. on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, USA. On the day before, a detachment of the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment commanded by Major Samuel M. Whitside.
    Battle of Wounded Knee
  56. sociopolitical thought that compares "the people" against "the elite", and urges social and political system changes.
  57. an American union leader, one of the founding members of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). Eventually he became one of the best-known socialists in the U.S.
    Eugene Debs
  58. was an American industrialist and Republican politician. He rose to fame as the campaign manager of the Republican Presidential, William McKinley, he had him do a “front porch campaign”. He wanted to control McKinley and he appealed to businesses.
    Marcus Hanna
  59. the populist party wanted to cheapen the dollar because if the worth went down prices would go up and they could pay off their debts. They supported bi-metalism, which made coins at a 16:1 ratio of silver to gold.
  60. given by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Democratic National Convention in Chicago on July 8, 1896. The speech advocated bimetallism.
    Cross of Gold Speech
  61. see “Cross of Gold” speech. He was a supporter of cheap money and ran on both the populist and Democrat ticket.
    William Jennings Bryan
  62. Wanted to back money more with silver than gold. Get rid of gold standard and undo “Crime of 1873.”
  63. Carnegie’s steel plant in Pennsylvania tried to lower wages. Union refused to work and Frick shut down plant. Pinkertons stopped strikers. July 9, 1892 battle between Pinkertons and strikers, pinkertons surrender.
    Homestead Strike
  64. 25th president. Former Republican congressman from Ohio. Ran against William Jennings Bryan and defeated him in 1896. He didn’t like bi-metalism and was called a gold bug. Marcus Hannah was major person behind campaign of McKinley. McKinley gave “front porch campaign.” McKinley’s election shows voting changes to big city. Re-elected in 1900 and assassinated by Leon Czolgosz.
    William McKinley
  65. advocates were in favor of an inflationary monetary policy using the free coinage of silver; its supporters were called "Silverites", debters wanted this like farmers.
    Free Silver
  66. conflict between labor unions and railroads that occurred in the United States in 1894. began in the town of Pullman, Illinois on May 11 when approximately 3,000 employees of the Pullman Palace Car Company began a wildcat strike in response to recent reductions in wages, bringing traffic west of Chicago to a halt.
    Pullman Strike
  67. is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of gold, wealthy liked this because kept them above the poor.
    Gold Standard
  68. a United States Navy flag officer, geostrategist, and historian. His concept of "sea power" was based on the idea that the most powerful navy will control the globe; he wroteThe Influence of Sea Power Upon History in 1890. Need a powerful navy and merchant marine for markets Need foreign markets Need overseas bases for fueling stations (esp. islands) Cut a canal as a shortcut
    Alfred Thayer Mahan
  69. taking over land and colonies and becoming a world power. Countries do it because everyone else is doing it, for natural resources, more trade markets, and more power. Similar to expansionists.
  70. announced before the Spanish-American war started, which proclaimed to the world that when we win the war, we would give Cuba back to the Cubans. The world was shocked that we did not take Cuba but later the Platt Amendment would place “chains” on Cuba.
    Teller Amendment
  71. led a Filipino insurrection against Spanish rule in 1896, and two years later, during the Spanish-American War, he aided the American attack on the Philippine Islands. He became the Philippines’ first President. He resisted American occupation; he continued to lead the struggle against the United States forces until March 1901, when he was captured.
    Emilio Aguinaldo
  72. sensationalist, whose newspaper told of larger than life stories from Cuba. He created the first cartoon character in a comic, “yellow kid” and had still competition from fellow journalist William Hearst.
    Joseph Pulitzer
  73. sent by Teddy Roosevelt to the Philippines where he attacked the Spanish fleet at Manila harbor on May 1, 1989. Only a single lost life in Dewey’s fleet.
    Commodore George Dewey
  74. war supporting congressmen (Spanish American War)
  75. put chains on Cuba. It said they could not make treaties with other foreign powers, could not run of foreign debt, US could intervene and they will sell a coaling station to the US.
    Platt Amendment
  76. ended Spanish-American War. Freed Cuba. Spain gives us Guam, Puerto Rico, sells us Philippines for $20 million. John Hay called it the “Splendid Little War.”
    Treaty of Paris
  77. 26th president, first progressive president. Became advocate for disadvantaged people. Part of rough rider regiment during Spanish-American War. Used Sherman Anti-trust act to dissolve trust that restrained interstate and foreign trade. Won antitrust case against Northern Securities Co. “Big Stick” dimplomacy, protected U.S. by ensuring the construction of the Panama Canal and U.S. authority in Latin America. Served as a middle man in conflicts between Russia and Japan-Gentlemen’s agreement-1907. Supported conservation of national resources.
    Theodore Roosevelt
  78. Editor of Heart’s Journal Along with Joseph Pulitzer they wrote the about “yellow press” encouraging overseas expansion. They attempted to outdo each other with captivating headlines. They made up insane stories about Spanish-American war to get americans excited. Hearst published a private letter on February 9,1898 from the Spanish minister Dupuy de Lome that said McKinley was an ear-to-the-ground politician who lacked good fait and Lome was forced to resign.
    William R. Hearst
  79. 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry, one of three such regiments raised in 1898 for the Spanish-American War and the only one of the three to see action. Theodore Roosevelt was one.
    Rough Riders
  80. was a Spanish ambassador to the United States. Through the so-called De Lôme Letter, he defamed U.S. President William McKinley, an act which eventually contributed to the Spanish-American War.
    Dupuy De Lome
  81. ship that was blown up in Cuba and was thought an act of war, but was an accident. Americans blamed the Spanish
  82. type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines to sell more newspapers. Techniques may include exaggerations of news events, scandal-mongering, or sensationalism. Popular for pulitzer vs. Hearst and dealing with Cuba.
    Yellow Journalism
  83. When McKinley became President, Hay was named ambassador to Great Britain in 1897. In 1898, Hay was named Secretary of State and helped negotiate the Treaty of Paris. His contributions included the adoption of an open door policy in China and the preparations for the Panama Canal. He is also renowned for his comment, written in a letter to Pres. TR, describing the Spanish American War as a "splendid little war."
    John Hay
  84. was an armed conflict between a group of Filipino revolutionaries and the United States, which arose from the struggle of the First Philippine Republic to gain independence following annexation by the United States. The war was part of a series of conflicts in the Philippine struggle for independence, preceded by the Philippine Revolution and theSpanish-American War. The Filipinos resulted in guerilla warfare but finally, Emilio Aguinaldo captured and the insurrection ends.
    Philippine Insurection
  85. TR’s foreign policy, “speak softly and carry a big stick, you will go far". The idea of negotiating peacefully, simultaneously threatening with the "big stick", or the military. Would be the corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.
    Big-stick Dimplomacy
  86. Roosevelt adding to the Monroe Doctrine. It said that the US would intervene to protect our hemisphere from European Intervention.
    Roosevelt Corollary
  87. in China, John Hay sends Europeajn countries this policy to sign that syas in their spheres f influence they must repect Chinese rules and not try to take over.
    Open Door Policy
  88. Bunau-Varilla was the Panamanian minister sold the Panama Canal land (10 miles) for $40 million.
    Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (1902
  89. 1907-1908. Many Japanese came to California because of Russo-Japanese war. Horrible earthquake in San Francisco destroyed schools, San Francisco School Board wanted to make Japanese Schools separate from White Schools. TR invited SF Board of Education to White House to agree that Schools must be integrated if Japan stops sending immigrants.
    Gentlemen's Agreement
  90. Europe could trade with ports in China. John Hay (Secretary of State), worried we’d never trade with China sent open door policy to Europe. Said foreigners would respect Chinese laws and obey them if something happens on Chinse land.
    Spheres of Influence
  91. in northern China, was a proto-nationalist movement by the "Righteous Harmony Society" in China between 1898 and 1901, opposing Western imperialism and Christianity. The uprising took place in response to European "spheres of influence" in China.
    Boxer Rebellion
  92. (48 mi) ship canal in Panama that joins the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Oceanand is a key conduit for international maritime trade. Built from 1904 to 1914. Teddy Roosevelt was president when it was beginning to be built.
    Panama Canal
  93. United States Navy battle fleet that completed a circumnavigation of the globe from 16 December 1907 to 22 February 1909 by order of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. It consisted of 16 battleships. Showed U.S. strength.
    Great White Fleet
  94. June 30, 1906 designed to prevent the adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals.
    Pure Food and Drug Act
  95. a policy aimed at furthering the interests of the United States abroad by encouraging the investment of U.S. capital in foreign countries.
    Dollar Diplomacy
  96. Taft aligned himself with the anti-progressive Republican Old Guard, causing Roosevelt to break away and lead a Progressive third party crusade.
    Old Guard
  97. one of the leading "muckrakers" of the progressive era. She exposed John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil trust, and how he built it. She published a series of 19 articles on Standard Oil and uncovered how the company had assumed control on an entire industry, state by state. She was never sued for libel because her story was documented. She helped bust up Standard Oil and Rockefeller.
    Ida Tarbell
  98. a muckraker who wrote The Jungle, which targeted the meatpacking industry.
    Upton Sinclair
  99. Danish immigrant who was a reporter for the New York Sun and shocked middle class Americans by writing How the Other Half Lives in 1890. Was a book on the dirt, disease and misery of New York slums.
    Jacob Riis
  100. governor of Wisconsin, nicknamed “Fighting Bob”, he was a crusader who emerged as the militant of the progressive Republican leaders. Wrestled considerable control from the corporations and also perfected a scheme to regulate public utilities.
    Robert La Follette
  101. bright young reporters who worked for magazines and did research and wrote about problems and brought out scandalous information, some published best selling books and targeted specific businesses and corporations. Disliked by Theodore Roosevelt
  102. 1906 free passes, with their hint of bribery, were restricted. ICC was expanded and its reach was extended to express companies, sleeping car companies and pipelines. ICC given more authority.
    Hepburn Act
  103. 1913 Direct Election of Senators, plight of earlier populist party.
    17th Amendment
  104. 1919 National Prohibition said the sale or manufacture of intoxicating liquors is forbidden. Known as the “Noble Experiment.” Causes illegal drinking, mobs, organized crime.
    18th Amendment
  105. (Under TR) Railroad company organized by J.P. Morgan and James J. Hill tried to have railroad monopoly in Northwest. Supreme Court ordered the Northern Securities Company to be dissolved in 1904. This angered big business but helped Roosevelt as a trust buster.
    Northern Securities Case
  106. 1877 Federal Government sold arid land cheaply. Purchaser had to irrigate land within 3 years.
    Desert Land Act
  107. (Under Taft)1909 Bad tariff because lowered and raised tariff on specific items. Taft signed this bill which angered progressives because they wanted and all around LOW tariff.
    Playne-Aldrich Tariff
  108. Launched a series of articles in McClure’s called “The Same of the Cities.” Talked about alliance between big business and government. He was a muckraker and inspired other journalists like Ida M. Tarbell.
    Lincoln Steffens
  109. (17th Amendment) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption of a new constitution, a constitutional amendment, a law, the recall of an elected official or simply a specific government policy. It is a form of direct democracy. The measure put to a vote is known in the U.S. as a ballot proposition or measure.
  110. was the 27th President of the United States (1909-1913) and later the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921-1930). He is the only person to have served in both offices. emphasized trust-busting, civil service reform, strengthening the Interstate Commerce Commission, and impliacated 16th amendment.
    William H. Taft
  111. is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct vote (plebiscite), initiated when sufficient voters sign a petition.
  112. a 1903 act that authorized the Interstate Commerce Commission to impose heavy fines on railroads that offered rebates, and upon the shippers that accepted these rebates.
    Elkins Act
  113. 1906 was a United States Congress Act that worked to prevent harmful bacteria from spreading to American citizens whether it be from cattle or poultry.
    Meat Inspection Act
  114. 1902 United States federal law that funded irrigation projects for the arid lands of 20 states in the American West.
    Newlands Act
  115. was a dispute between U.S. Forest Service Chief Gifford Pinchot andU.S. Secretary of the Interior Richard Achilles Ballinger that contributed to the split of theRepublican Party before the 1912 Presidential Election and helped to define the U.S.conservation movement in the early 20th century.
    Ballainger-Pinchot Affair
  116. wanted to bust all trusts, free people and get rid of all big business, was a professor, very intelligent and stubborn, once governor of NJ, and very moral and righteous.
    Woodrow Wilson
  117. under Wilson, significantly lowered the tariff. Under the 16th amendment there was a graduated income tax passed.
    Underwood Tariff Bill
  118. 1913 decentralized private banking system under federal control. There were 12 “member banks”, bankers banks, and they could issue money and control money to keep the economy steady.
    Federal Reserve Act
  119. made monopolies illegal and labor union legal. It said that unions were not subject to anti-trust laws.
    Clayton Act
  120. the new law empowered a presidentially appointed commission to turn a searchlight on industries engaged in interstae commerce. The commissioners were expected to crush monopoly at the source by rooting out unfair trade practices including unlawful competition, false advertising, mislabeling, and bribery.
    Federal Trade Commission
  121. German U-boats sunk a US luxury ships with passengers in 1915 and it angered the American public. The ship actually contained ammunition but thousands died, 128 of them being US citizens.
  122. he became the chief rival of President Carranza. Villa displayed his hatred to the gringos in 1916 when his followers killed 18 Americans in Mexico, and 17 in New Mexico. General John J. (“Black Jack”) Pershing was sent to put down his forces.
    Pancho Villa
  123. TR’s idea of progressivism was based on Herbert Croly and his book. They favored continued consolidation of trusts and labor unions, women suffrage, social welfare, including minimum-wage laws and social insurance.
    New Nationalism
  124. 1916, made credit available to farmers at low rates of interest –as long demanded by the Populists.
    Federal Farm Loan Act
  125. 1916, established an 8-hour day for all employees on trains in interstate commerce, with extra pay for overtime.
    Adamson Act
  126. 1916, granted assistance to federal civil-service employees during periods of disability.
    Workingmen's Compensation Act
  127. Germany and Austria-Hungary
    Central Powers
  128. British liner sunk August 1915 with the loss of 2 american lives. Berlin agreed to not sink unarmed and unresisting passenger ships without warning.
  129. The americans demanded a separate army because dissatisfied with British and French. Pershing was the head of American Army during WWI. ”Black Jack” was assigned a from of 85 miles northwestward from the Swiss border to meet the French lines. Pershing’s army undertook the Meuse-Argonne offensive from September 26-November 11, 1918.
    John J. Pershing
  130. (Under Wilson)1913 Income Taxes. Congress has power to lay and collect income taxes. Tax on people with income more than $3,000. Took in more money than tariff.
    16th Amendment
  131. Wilson’s campaign platform in 1912 to get rid of all trusts. Country would only have small business with private owners.
    New Freedom
  132. 1920 replaced the Philippine Organic Act of 1902 that earlier served as a constitution for the Philippine Islands.
    Jones Act
  133. against axis powers in WW1 and it was mainly the U.S, Great Britain, France, Poland, Belguim, USSR.
  134. ship that was torpedoed by Germany that was a passenger ship during WW1.
  135. was an American union leader, one of the founding members of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and several times the candidate of the Socialist Party.
    Eugene Debs
  136. young journalist who was the head of the Committee on the Public Informaiton. He was outspoken, tactless and gifted with zeal and imagination. His job was to sell America on the war and sell the world on Wilsonian war aims. He made propaganda for the war and the entire nation caught the frenzied spirit.
    George Creel
  137. German Foreign Minister sent note to Mexico saying if they engaged America in war, when Germany won the war they would help Mexico get session back. It was intercepted by US and brought America even closer to war.
    Zimmerman Note
  138. republicans in the senate who although didn’t agree with the peace added 14 reservations. They were led by H.C. Lodge.
  139. public support was crucial to the entire wartime effort. The committee was to promote the war domestically while publicizing American war aims abroad. Under the leadership of a muckraking journalist named George Creel, the CPI recruited heavily from business, media, academia, and the art world. This represented the first time that a modern government spread propaganda on such a large scale.
    Committee on Public Information
  140. 1917 these acts limited freedom by fining people if they spoke out against war and the government. They reflected current fears of Germans and antiwar Americans.
    Espionage and Sedition Acts
  141. devised by the “Big Four”: France, Italy, GB, and USA, the treaty was based on Wilsons 14 points that he believed would bring stability to Europe. It was the agreement negotiated during the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 that ended World War I and imposed disarmament, reparations, and territorial changes on the defeated Germany. The treaty also established the League of Nations, which was to protect world peace. There was also opposition to the treaty when Wilson returns home.
    Treaty of Versailles
  142. he advised president Wilson on national defense and became the chairman of the new War Industries Board. With his leadership, he managed the US's economic mobilization during World War I. He supported the League of Nations. He wanted a more powerful version of the War Industries Board, which he saw as the only way to ensure maximum coordination between civilian business and military needs.
    Bernard Baruch
  143. led the reservationists, who wanted to change the treaty and get rid of the League of Nations. Nemesis of Woodrow Wilson
    Henry C. Lodge
  144. October 1918, Written by Wilson to bring stability to Europe. Freedom of Navigation, Free Trade, Territorial Changes-give up land taken during war, Self-Determination-people should get their independence, most important create a League of Nations.
    Fourteen Points
  145. 35th president. Hoover had served as Secretary of Commerce and Head of the Food Administration. He was a Quaker-humanitarian who was already considered a hero because he led a massive charitable drive to feed the starving people of war-racked Belgium. Hoover relied on voluntary compliance rather than on formal edicts. He rejected ration cards and promoted the Food Administration through propaganda. Hoover proclaimed wheatless Wednesdays and meatless Tuesdays. The Food Administration worked when farm production increased by 1/4 and food exports to allies tripled.
    Herbert Hoover
  146. Taft was cochairman. Established during war to be the “Supreme Court” for labor disputes. 1,000 plus cases came before it.
    National War Labor Board
  147. 1918, prohibiting the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcoholic beverages for consumption: repealed in 1933.
    18th Amendment
  148. "A return to normalcy" (i.e. a return to the way of life before World War I) was United States presidential candidate Warren G. Harding’s campaign promise in the election of 1920. Harding coined this term and now it’s in the dictionary.
  149. was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference, and the precursor to the United Nations. Presented by Woodrow Wilson and was a agreement to end all wars, and that WW1 was a war to end all wars.
    League of Nations
  150. prohibits any United States citizen to be denied the right to vote based on sex. It was ratified on August 18, 1920.
    19th Amendment
  151. an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the regulation and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements, medications, etc. Headed by Herbert Hoover
    Food Administration
  152. were bitter opponents of the Treaty of Versailles in the United States in 1919. Specifically, the term refers to about 12 to 18 United States senators, both Republicans and Democrats, who fought intensely to defeat the ratification of the treaty by the Senate in 1919.
  153. attorney Gnereal who “saw red’ too easily. Earned title of “Fighting Quakers” by his excess of zeal in rounding up suspects of communism. Ultimately totaled six thousand and was bombed by some radicals.
    A. Mitchell Palmer
  154. mild-mannered professor who worked at Columbia University. Set forth the principles of “learning by doing’ that formed foundation of progressive education. He believed the workbench was essential and “education for life” was the primary goal of a teacher.
    John Dewey
  155. “Flying Fool”, electrified world by the first solo west to east conquest of the Atlantic. Got $25,000 for flying his plane the Spitir of St. Louis from NY to Paris. Everyone gushed over “Lucky Lindy” and dramatized and popularized flying. His son was kidnapped and killed later.
    Charles Lindbergh
  156. seen action on the Italian front in 1917 effected by the war. Devised his own lean, word-sparing style and spoke with a voice with no equals. He wrote The Sun Also Rises and A Farewell to arms about war experience and spiritually numb America.
    Ernest Hemmingway
  157. Sacco and Vanzetti case: They were Italian immigrants who were illiterate, atheist and anarchists. They were unfairly convicted of a murder in Boston and sentenced to the Death penalty. The judge was extremely prejudice and the trial wasater reopened.
  158. 1924 newcomers from Europe were restricted in any given year to a definite quota, which was set at 3% of the people living in the US.
    Emergency Quota Act
  159. in the 1920s it was a term applied to a "new breed" of lower middle class, young women who wore short skirts, bobbed their hair, and listened to jazz. They were seen as brash for wearing excessive makeup, drinking, sexual manner, smoking, and driving automobiles.
  160. a founder of advertising, he wrote The Man Nobody Knows, setting forth that Jesus Christ was the best adman (person who works in advertising) of all time.
    Bruce Barton
  161. a biology teacher who was indicated of teaching evolution. In the “Monkey Trial” he was against William Jennings Bryan, a Fundamentalist, taking his stand on the Bible. Scopes was found guilty and fined.
    John Scopes
  162. led the birth-control movement and founder of the National Birth Control League.
    Margaret Sanger
  163. Criminal Lawyer defending John T. Scopes in the Scopes Trial. He Made a fool of William J. Bryan who was a Presbyterian Fundamentalist who was a against the teaching of evolution and “an expert on the Bible.” Bryan died of a stroke from heat and strain of Scopes trial five days after the trial.
    Clarence Darrow
  164. Minnesota-born Princetonian only 24 when pulbished This SIde of Paradise in 1920. It was a bible for the young, talked about flappers. Later published The Great Gatsby in 1925talked about glamour and cruelty of an achievement-oriented society.
    F. Scott Fitzgerald
  165. marked the end of an era. Quotas for foreigners were cut from 3 to 2% for europeans. Didn’t allow any asians to come to america. Latin Americans and Canadians weren’t effected by the quota system.
    National Origins Act/The Immigration Act of 1924
  166. Everyone in the 1920s bought stock “on margin” which meant they paid a small down payment. This led to Stock Market crash because people couldn’t actually pay for the stocks they bought before.
    Buying on Margin
  167. was an American novelist, and he became the first writer from the United States to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    Sinclair Lewis
  168. was a prominent American industrialist, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production. Famous for the “model T” car, 1st car.
    Henry Ford
  169. was the enabling legislation for the Eighteenth Amendment which establishedprohibition in the United States.
    Volstead Act
  170. one of the best liked men of his generation. Easygoing, didn’t say no to people. Had a corrupt presidency, ex. The Ohio Gang (his cabinet) had affairs like the Veterans Bureau affair, and the Teapot Dome Scandal. He had a heart attack and died in 1923. His foreign affairs included The Naval Conference of 1921, the Dawes Act and the Kellog-Brian Pact, all revolving around keeping world peace.
    Warren G. Harding
  171. Secretary of the Treasury, theory was to level such high taxes that that the rich were forced to invest in tax exempt securities rather then in the factories that provided prosperous payrolls. Helped to engineer a series of tax reductions and he remains a controversial figure.
    Andrew Mellon
  172. US was to loan money to Germany to help them pay for war reparations they owed to the allied powers in Europe, who were paying the US back from the war. The cycle falls apart in the 30s during the depression.
    Dawes Plan
  173. a scandal during Harding’s presidency, where oil deposits were set-aside for the navy, and the Secretary of the Interior, Albert B. Fall’s gives them to private oil companies at low rates. He later goes to jail. Before the Watergate scandal, this was considered the greatest scandal in American history.
    Teapot Dome Scandal
  174. 1930, sponsored by Reed Smoot and Willis C. Hawley; it raised the tariff on imported goods and became the second highest in history.
    Hawley-Smoot Tariff
  175. 1921-1922, the Washington Naval Conference or 5 Power Treaty, told US, GB, France, Japan, and Italy how many tons of ships to destroy. Japan was mad because they had to destroy less ships than other countries and they believed they were just as powerful. This was a way of keeping peace!
    Washington Conference
  176. involved in the Teapot Dome Scandal of 1921. Albert Fall (secretary of interior) induced his carless colleague Secretary of the Navy to transfer oil in oil reserves in Teapot Dome, Wyoming and Elk Hills, California to the Interior Department. Harding signed this secret order and Fall quietly leased land to oilmen for $100,000. Fall ends up going to jail when this scandal surfaced in March, 1923.
    Albert Fall
  177. Attorney General under Harding who was part of “Ohio Gang.” Stopped a railroad strike when railroad company wanted to cut wages by 12%. Senate investigation in 1924 of illegal sale of pardons and liquor permits allowed by Daugherty. Daugherty was forced to resign and tried twice in 1927, but released after jury failed to agree.
    Harry Daugherty
  178. Democrats nominated him for the 1928 election. Four time governor of New York. Loved alcohol, Roman Catholic. Dry, democratic fundamentalists hated Smith. He was defeated by Herbert C. Hoover.
    Alfred E. Smith
  179. Veterans of WWI demanded for their bonus 21 years early. They formed the Bonus Expeditionary Force which had 20,000 members. 6,000 veterans went to Washington in the summer of 1932 and lived in vacant lots to demand for entire payment of their bonus immediately. They were a health issue and refused to decamp which started riots that cost two lives. Hoover said these people were communists, only some of them were. General Douglas MacArthur evacuated the men with tear gas and bayonets. A few soldiers were injured in the “Battle of Anacostia Flats.”
    Bonus Army
  180. was a group of politicians and industry leaders who came to be associated withWarren G. Harding, the twenty-ninth President of the United States of America. Mostly his cabinet, who were his close friends.
    "Ohio Gang"
  181. was an independent agency of the United States government, established and chartered by the US Congress in 1932, during the administration of PresidentHerbert Hoover. They gave $2 billion in aid to state and local governments and made loans to banks, railroads, mortgage associations and other businesses.
    Reconstruction Finance Corp
  182. was signed on August 27, 1928 by the United States, France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Japan, and a number of other countries. The pact renounced aggressive war, prohibiting the use of war as "an instrument of national policy" except in matters of self-defense.
    Kellog-Briand Pact
  183. was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its fallout. Signaled the Depression.
    Black Friday