# TDM 402 Test 4

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1. What are the three steps to develop a primary research design
• 1. Identify the Model Objectives
• 2. Formulate the Hypothesized Model Structure
• 3. Operationalize the Variables
2. What are the three parts to Identify the Model Objectives
• 1.Testable Hypothesis
• 2.Forecasts
• 3.Simulations
3. How do you Formulate the Hypothesized Model Structure
• *Proposed Relationships
• *Preliminary Framework
• *Classification system
4. What are the four different ways to Operationalize the Variables
• 1. Conceptualization
• 2. Nominal Definition
• 3. Operational Definition
• 4. Measurements in the Real World
5. Variables are
* non-constant characteristics or conditions that change or have different values for different individuals or observations (r).

*They are the focus of quantitative research projects which is interested in their levels (means), spreads (variances) and relationships (covariances)
6. Measurement is
* the process of assigning numbers to variables for observational units.
7. A Casual relationship between variables is
﻿Percieved relationship is due to simple, positive directional causes.

• EX: An increase in income causes increase in vacation travel
8. A Common Cause Relationship between variables is
* Percieved relationship is due to common uncerlying casual factor

• EX: An increasex in Income causes increases in both Travel and Grocery Expenditures which appear to be realted.
9. A Confounding Relationship between variables is
* Perceived simple relationship is confuounded by other causes

• EX: Changes in Travel are Caused both by changes in Income and confounded by changes in Tourism Advertising.
10. ﻿﻿A Spurious Correlation Relationship between variables is
* Percieved relationship is due to random correlations

EX: Changes in Travel and Cancer Deaths over tiem are not casually realted

11. What type of Variable Relationship is the following

A positive relationship between the interior angle of a triangle and the length of the opposite side.
causal
12. What type of Variable Relationship is the following

A perceived negative relationship between an increase in water bottles sold during the summer months to and the number of vacations taken in Arizona in the summer months.
common response
13. What type of Variable Relationship is the following

A negative relationship between increases in the average price of Scottsdale hotel rooms and changes in the number of room-nights sold in Scottsdale.
• confounded
• a bunch of other things that are going on
14. What type of Variable Relationship is the following

A positive relationship between increases in the DOW Industrial average and changes in hospitality industry employment.
• common cause
• same things that are driving one up are driving the other one up
15. In Operationalizing the variables, the progression from ideas to measurement include:
• 1. Conceptualization: Ideas « Concepts
• 2. Nominal Definition
• 3. Operational Definition
• a. Observables (Direct and Indirect)
• b. Constructs and Indicators
• 4. Measurements in the Real World
• a. Ranges and variation
• b. Dimensions
• c. Levels (nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio)
16. Operationalization involves choices
about:
• o Dimensions
• - the attributes and ranges of meanings that are relevant to the concept.
• o Levels of measurement
• - nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio.
• o Range of variation
• · variation is crucial to statistics for measuring the degree of certainty (reliability)
• ·covariation provides information for measuring relationships between variables.

·
17. What are the four Levels of Measurement
• 1. Nominal
• 2. Ordinal
• 3. Interval
• 4. Ratio
18. What is a Nominal Level of Measurement
- Variables whose attributes merely label characteristics (names)

EX: name, gender, political party, birthplace, group type (friends, family, etc.).
19. What is a Ordinal Level of Measurement
variables with attributes we can logically order in relative terms (ranks)

EX: rankings, preference choices, motivation scales, attitude measures, satisfaction or importance rankings. (Months)
20. What is a Interval Level of Measurement
The logical distance between attributes can be expressed in meaningful standard intervals (equal distance between levels but no true zero point).

EX: month of year, time of day, temperature in Fahrenheit or Celsius, consumer price index.
21. What is a Ratio Level of Measurement
attributes have all the structural characteristics of interval variables, but have a “true‘ zero reference point. (equal distance between levels with true zero point)

• EX: income, education, frequency of participation, visitor-days, trip expenditures,
• counts of checkmarks.
22. Model Structure
• a representation (usually mathematical) of some behavior including the variables and the assumed
• causal relationships
23. Observation
• information gathered through the human senses.
• In statistics, one piece of sample data
24. Variable
• Characteristics or conditions that change or have different values for different individuals or
• observations.
25. Conceptualization
the mental process whereby fuzzy and imprecise concepts are made more specific and precise
26. Nominal Definition
limiting the specifications assigned to a term. Assigning a name to a concept
27. Operationalization
the development of specific research procedures that will result in empirical observations. (dimensions, range of variation, levels of measurement)
28. Measurement
is the process of assigning numbers to variables for observational units
29. Variation
the spread of or dispersion of observed values within a set of data
30. Covariation
the degree to which two variables change together (in the same or opposite directions)
31. Testable Hypothesis
a hypothesis that is capable of generating predictions (not necessarily forecasts) for evaluating its likelihood
32. Prediction
is a probabilistic statement that something will happen based on what is already known. Usually, but not always for the future
33. Forecast
a "best" prediction of the future made by a particular person or with a particular technique or representation of current conditions
34. Trend
a general direction in which something tends to move over time.
35. What are the three types of factors applied to demand for travel to a destination that Clawson and Knectch suggest the attendance at outdoor reatreational areas are affected by?
• Demand = f(travelers, destination,
• relationship)
• Travelers
• Destination
• Relationship
36. Demand = f(travelers, destination, relationship)
Factors relating to the potential leisure _________, as individuals,
Travelers
37. Demand = f(travelers, destination, relationship)
Factors relating to the __________itself
Destination
38. Demand = f(travelers, destination, relationship)
Factors relating to ______________between travelers and the destination.
Relationships
39. Questionnaire
• One type of ‘survey instrument
• A printed/written list of questions
40. Survey
Whole process of conducting an investigation, which involves a number of ‘subjects’
41. Questionnaire survey
• person who records answers to a survey questionnaire and assists the respondent with
• interpretation.
• ·
• Questionnaires are ideal for obtaining policy-related data.
• They use a transparent methodology.
• Quantification is easily communicated/ understood.
• Repeat surveys can study changes over time.
• They can cover a wide range of activities, attitudes, meanings, and perceptions.
42. Population
• the entire collection of items or persons that is the focus of concern.
• (e.g. the population of potential tourists)
43. Sample
• a set of items or number of subjects
• that have been selected from a population.
• (e.g. a sample of 20 tourists.)
44. Respondent
person who is selected and interviewed for a survey
45. Response rate
the number of respondents who complete a questionnaire compared to the number who were asked.
46. Interviewer
• person who records answers to a survey questionnaire and assists the respondent with
• interpretation.
47. What are the three types of Questionarie Surveys
• 1. Interviewer-completion
• 2. Respondent-completion
• 3. Combinations of Respondent and Interviewer – completion
48. What is a Interviewer-completion form of questionarie surveys:
interviewer conducts interview based on questionnaire, and records answers on the questionnaire
49. What is a Respondent-completion form of questionarie survey
respondents fill out the questionnaire themselves
50. What is a Combinations of Respondent and Interviewer – completion form of questionarie survey
: e.g. interviewer records observable characteristics (group size, gender, travel mode) and the respondent is asked to write down confidential information (income, expenditures).
51. Factors affecting survey response rates (% who respond)
• 1. The interest of the respondent in the survey topic
• 2. The length of the questionnaire
• 3. Questionnaire design/presentation/complexity
• 4. The style, content and authorship of the accompanying letter and introduction
• 5. The provision of a postage-paid reply envelope or easy submission if electronic
• 6. Rewards/ incentives for responding
• 7. The number and timing of reminders/follow-ups.
52. What kind of Measurement Formats can be used in survey questions
• a. Open-ended or direct questions
• b. Checklist
• c. Ranking Likert
• d. Scales
• e. Semantic differential.
53. A ___________is selected from a population.
sample
54. A sample that is ______________of the population can produce unbiased estimates of population means.
representative
55. ________________ seeks to provide a representative sample and to minimize bias of estimates.
Random sampling
56. The three most important statistics
(according to Dr. T) are the_____ , the _________ and the __________.
• mean
• variance
• covariance
57. Three criteria for determining sample size are: ________, the ______________ and
the ______________ (if <50,000).
• the desired precision
• research budget
• size of the population
58. __________________ (CI) are calculated as at the 95% level.
Confidence Intervals
59. The ___________is described by the width of confidence intervals which vary according to
sample size.
level of precision
60. When certain characteristics of thepopulation are known _______________can be used to correct for representativeness in the sample.
weighting
 Author: bcollinsworth ID: 77466 Card Set: TDM 402 Test 4 Updated: 2011-04-07T03:56:05Z Folders: Description: Study Guide for Test 4 in TDM 403 ASU Show Answers: