art histroy terms

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art histroy terms
2011-04-05 00:26:27

art history terms
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  1. Sfumato
    • Italian,
    • “smoky.” A smokelike haziness that subtly softens outlines in
    • painting; particularly applied to the paintings of Leonardo da Vinci
    • and Correggio
  2. Colorito
    Italian, “colored” or “painted.” A term used to describe the application of paint. Characteristic of 16th century Venetian artists who emphasized the application of paint as an important element of the creative process.
  3. Deseigno
    • Italian,
    • “drawing” and “design.” The careful design preparation based on
    • preliminary drawing. Renaissance artists considered drawing to be the
    • external physical manifestation of an internal intellectual idea of
    • design.
  4. Chiaroscuro
    in drawing or painting, the treatment and use of light and dark, especially the gradations of light that produce the effect of modeling.
  5. Tenebrism
    • painting
    • in the “shadowy manner,” using violent contrasts of light and dark, as
    • in the work of Caravaggio. The term derives from tenebroso.
  6. *alla prima
    • from
    • the Italian “at first.” Used to describe painting directly onto the
    • canvas without preliminary underdrawing or underpainting. Working
    • direct from the model.
  7. quadratura
    painted mural decorations done in trompe l’oeil, usually depicting architectural subjects.
  8. Dutch Caravaggisti
    A term applied to a number of Dutch painters who were strongly influenced by and/or imitated Caravaggio's style in the 17th century
  9. quadro riportato
    • a
    • ceiling design in which painted scenes are arranged in panels that
    • resemble framed pictures transferred to the surface of a shallow,
    • curved vault. (uses normal perspective)
  10. *states
    • a)
    • one of several distinguishable stages in the development of an etched
    • or engraved plate, each showing a deliberate alteration of the design
    • or fresh evidence of wear; b) a print from one of these stages
  11. *staffage
    • a
    • term applied to the non-essential small figures and animals employed by
    • the artist to animate a painted composition, for example in the
    • landscapes produced in the 17th century by Claude Lorrain.
  12. Hôtel
    French, “town house”
  13. Rocailles = (see Rococo)
    • a) a style, primarily of interior design, that appeared in France around 1700;b)
    • interiors featured lavish decoration, including small sculptures,
    • ornamental mirrors, easel paintings, tapestries, reliefs, wall
    • paintings, and elegant furniture; c) French, “pebble;” referred to the small stones and shells used to decorate grotto interiors
  14. femmes savants
    French, “learned woman;” term used to describe the cultured hostesses of Rococo salons
  15. *Psyché/psyché
    a princess loved by Cupid; b) a large sheet mirror
  16. fête galante
    french, “amorous festival;” type of Rococo painting depicting the outdoor amusements of French upper-class society
  17. cruciform plan
    cross-shaped plan, often used in churches
  18. Enlightenment
    • The Western philosophy based on empirical evidence that dominated the 18th
    • century. The Enlightenment was a new way of thinking critically about
    • the world and about humankind independently of religion, myth, or
    • tradition.
  19. Industrial Revolution
    • the
    • process of change from an agrarian, handicraft economy to one dominated
    • by industry and machine manufacture; began in England in the 18th
    • century and from there spread to other parts of the world
  20. noble savage
    • an
    • idealized concept of uncivilized man, who symbolizes the innate
    • goodness of one not exposed to the corrupting influences of civilization
  21. *history painting
    • painting
    • in which the subject-matter is taken from classical, mythological, or
    • biblical history. Considered a high form of art, in which a moral story
    • is told
  22. *salon
    • gathering
    • of intellectual, social, and political cultural elites under the roof
    • of an inspiring host/hostess partially to amuse one another and partly
    • to refine their taste and increase their knowledge through
    • conversation- also means the room where this activity took place.
  23. *villa
    originally an upper-class Roman country house, but applied in the 18th century (during Neoclassicism’s interest in revival) to English country houses
  24. rotunda
    the circular area under a dome; also a domed round building
  25. *Palladian revival
    • a) architectural movement which flourished in England ca. 1720-70, taking its inspiration from the 16th-century Venetian architect Andrea Palladio, the chief Renaissance disciple of the Roman architect Vitruvius; b) in general, the free adaption of Imperial Roman architecture to 18th-century
    • social needs, with motifs borrowed from Roman public buildings and
    • adapted for use in churches, other public buildings, and private houses
  26. Associationalism
    • A
    • theory of knowledge holding that all concepts are formed through the
    • customary or even arbitrary connection of an image or mental idea with
    • an object (based on similarity, closeness in space or time, etc.)
  27. Painterly
    representing form, not by means of outline, but by the mingling of light and shade, rendered as indeterminate patches of color
  28. The Sublime
    • In
    • Romanticism, feelings of awe mixed with terror. The thrill that comes
    • from distancing oneself from intense human emotions evoked by pain or
    • fear.
  29. Allegory
    • a
    • work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by
    • means of a single object or figure, or by grouping objects and figures
    • together, frequently in an unrealistic way
  30. Orientalism (Edward Said)
    Western art with picturesque oriental subject matter or oriental influences