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- learning is a 2 stage process of encoding and unconscious strengthening
- if consolidation is prevented, item should never be recalled.
end at the end of rehearsal/studying
learning still occuring even after no longer trying to learn something
detrimental to consolidation
- electroconvulsive shock
- electroconvulsive therapy
- physical trauma
- rats who were shocked immediately after learning to go to the safe side of an electrified box did not remember to go to the safe side;
- rats shocked after a few of hours of running to the safe side remembered to go to the safe side
inability to recall info just before a trauma
inability to form new memories after a traumatic experience
electroconvulsive therapy results
people asked questions right before and right after therapy some were unable to recall the answers they gave b/c they didn't consolidate them before the therapy.
consequences of physical trauma
- weakest memories closest to trauma
- more severe the injury, further back memory loss goes
enhancing consolidation (3)
- arousal: ppl remember the associated number with an arousing word better than a neutral word
- adrenaline: increased with hand in ice water, decreased with propanolol; memory better when adrenaline high
beta blocker, treats high BP, blocks adrenaline, used for stage fright/nervousness
- an imcomplete task is remembered better than a completed task
- kindergarten kids 80% remem better the tasks they didn't get to finish
- working on a problem and can't find the answer, leave it alone for a while and the answer comes to you
- theory is that you are unconsciously still working on the problem
- conscious recollection of info
- can be witnessed through direct tests of memory
- retention of info w/o awareness
- tested by indirect tests of memory
- when a variable has a different effect on implicit or explicit memory.
- e.x. as age increases explicit goes down but implicit stays the same.
anecdotal evidence for population dissociations
can't encode into long term at an explicit level but can at an implicit level.
- results from alcoholism
- anterograde amnesia b/c of the disease
- woman pricked with pin could not recognize dr long term explicitly but remembered to not shake his hand implicitly.
- when exposed to a word related to another word, the first word primes the related word
- able to demonstrate implicit memory
if you see a word you will be able to recognize it quicker when you see it again next time.
people with no long term memory capability completed tasks over and over and got faster each time even though they didn't remember ever practicing.
over time explicit degrades and implicit stays virtually the same.
reading vs generating
- implicit test generating < reading
- explicit test reading < generating
- test to read a word presented under very degraded conditions
- priming occurs if you can read the word b/c you saw that word before the test somewhere.
conceptually driven test
focused on meaning/semantics
perceptually driven test (data driven)
focuses on the physical characteristics of the word/item, whta it looks/sounds like.
transfer approapriate processing
- (similar to encoding specificity)
- memory performance depends on the match b/t the processes engaged at study and processes required by the test.
graphemic cued recall
(bold and cold) word that looks like a word you've already studied
explicit tests are _______ driven
- implicit (indirect) tests are ____ driven
- conceptually, perceptually
- reading = perceptual
- generating = conceptual
- unintentional plagiarism
- mainly occurs when distracted during input of info.
implicit attitude/association test
harvard test to measure implicit prejudice
tends to focus on the concepts of ideas not details.
- first to recognize that we're active learners
- read a story then subjects memories for it were actively tested later, it was interpreted with a british perspective even though it was a native american story.
- organized mental frameworks used to interpret new info
- have default values
office schema experiment
if an object doesnt match the schema, reconstructed memory can make the experience of the object the same as your memory for it.
schemas for people
preexisting knowledge about a person can distort/alter memory for a context.
- schemas for sequences of events.
- restaurant script
- when read a story subjects will insert false memories based on their script of an experience.
ppl slower to react to true/false questions when reading a suspensful story versus a generic one.
- occurs because of the spreading activation model, one word activates others related to it.
- takes place in the hippocampus
Roediger and McDermott
given a list of words to remember people will mention words not in the list because the word is related to the list of words.
- lost in mall study
- her memory of her mother's death
- when subjects imagine somehting happened to them about 30% begin to actually believe it happened.
function of knowledge
- when interpreting new info, you use old info to help
- the more you know about a topic the easier it is to learn about more in the same topic.
- general knowledge of the world
- (knowing what a maiden name is)
semantic network model
info stored hierarchically and nodes are connected by links.
directly associated properties
nodes with their own characteristics in the network model
nodes through inheritance
nodes take on another nodes' characteristics through inheritance
semantic verification test
- having to answer T/F as quickly as possible, want reaction time not accuracy.
- info in the test is assumed knowledge
- tests the connections b/t the nodes
theories of semantic memory
- feature overlap model
- spreading activation model
spreading activation model
- concepts are still nodes but might be represented many times; designed to capture real relationship b/t items;
- differs for every person b/c items associated diff for everyone
when an item is mentioned other items are activated
helps the retrieval process
feature overlap model
concepts not nodes but a set of features - defining and characteristic
- highly typical items are verified faster than nontypical ones
- (canary verified faster as a bird than a penguin)
- absolutely critical to the concept
- (birds have wings)
- not critical to the concept
- (birds fly - not all do)
- a match on both defining and characteristic features
- technically speaking = match on defining features only
- loosely speaking = match on characteristic features only