M and C Exam 3 ch 6,9

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jax12
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M and C Exam 3 ch 6,9
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2011-04-05 02:33:10
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M and C Exam 3 ch 6,9
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  1. consolidation
    • learning is a 2 stage process of encoding and unconscious strengthening
    • if consolidation is prevented, item should never be recalled.
  2. conscious encoding
    end at the end of rehearsal/studying
  3. subconscious strengthening
    learning still occuring even after no longer trying to learn something
  4. detrimental to consolidation
    • electroconvulsive shock
    • electroconvulsive therapy
    • physical trauma
  5. electroconvulsive shock
    • rats who were shocked immediately after learning to go to the safe side of an electrified box did not remember to go to the safe side;
    • rats shocked after a few of hours of running to the safe side remembered to go to the safe side
  6. retroactive amnesia
    inability to recall info just before a trauma
  7. anterograde amnesia
    inability to form new memories after a traumatic experience
  8. electroconvulsive therapy results
    people asked questions right before and right after therapy some were unable to recall the answers they gave b/c they didn't consolidate them before the therapy.
  9. consequences of physical trauma
    • weakest memories closest to trauma
    • more severe the injury, further back memory loss goes
  10. enhancing consolidation (3)
    • sleep
    • arousal: ppl remember the associated number with an arousing word better than a neutral word
    • adrenaline: increased with hand in ice water, decreased with propanolol; memory better when adrenaline high
  11. propanolol
    beta blocker, treats high BP, blocks adrenaline, used for stage fright/nervousness
  12. Zeigarnik effect
    • an imcomplete task is remembered better than a completed task
    • kindergarten kids 80% remem better the tasks they didn't get to finish
  13. incubation
    • working on a problem and can't find the answer, leave it alone for a while and the answer comes to you
    • theory is that you are unconsciously still working on the problem
  14. explicit memory
    • conscious recollection of info
    • can be witnessed through direct tests of memory
  15. implicit memory
    • retention of info w/o awareness
    • tested by indirect tests of memory
  16. population dissociations
    • when a variable has a different effect on implicit or explicit memory.
    • e.x. as age increases explicit goes down but implicit stays the same.
    • time
  17. anecdotal evidence for population dissociations
    can't encode into long term at an explicit level but can at an implicit level.
  18. Korsakoffs disease
    • results from alcoholism
    • anterograde amnesia b/c of the disease
    • woman pricked with pin could not recognize dr long term explicitly but remembered to not shake his hand implicitly.
  19. semantic priming
    • when exposed to a word related to another word, the first word primes the related word
    • able to demonstrate implicit memory
  20. repeated priming
    if you see a word you will be able to recognize it quicker when you see it again next time.
  21. procedural memory
    people with no long term memory capability completed tasks over and over and got faster each time even though they didn't remember ever practicing.
  22. time
    over time explicit degrades and implicit stays virtually the same.
  23. reading vs generating
    • implicit test generating < reading
    • explicit test reading < generating
  24. perceptual identification
    • test to read a word presented under very degraded conditions
    • priming occurs if you can read the word b/c you saw that word before the test somewhere.
  25. conceptually driven test
    focused on meaning/semantics
  26. perceptually driven test (data driven)
    focuses on the physical characteristics of the word/item, whta it looks/sounds like.
  27. transfer approapriate processing
    • (similar to encoding specificity)
    • memory performance depends on the match b/t the processes engaged at study and processes required by the test.
  28. graphemic cued recall
    (bold and cold) word that looks like a word you've already studied
  29. explicit tests are _______ driven
    • implicit (indirect) tests are ____ driven
    • conceptually, perceptually
    • reading = perceptual
    • generating = conceptual
  30. cryptomnesia
    • unintentional plagiarism
    • mainly occurs when distracted during input of info.
  31. implicit attitude/association test
    harvard test to measure implicit prejudice
  32. reconstructive memory
    tends to focus on the concepts of ideas not details.
  33. Bartlett 1932
    • first to recognize that we're active learners
    • read a story then subjects memories for it were actively tested later, it was interpreted with a british perspective even though it was a native american story.
  34. schemas
    • organized mental frameworks used to interpret new info
    • have default values
  35. office schema experiment
    if an object doesnt match the schema, reconstructed memory can make the experience of the object the same as your memory for it.
  36. schemas for people
    preexisting knowledge about a person can distort/alter memory for a context.
  37. scripts
    • schemas for sequences of events.
    • restaurant script
    • when read a story subjects will insert false memories based on their script of an experience.
  38. suspense
    ppl slower to react to true/false questions when reading a suspensful story versus a generic one.
  39. false memories
    • occurs because of the spreading activation model, one word activates others related to it.
    • takes place in the hippocampus
  40. Roediger and McDermott
    given a list of words to remember people will mention words not in the list because the word is related to the list of words.
  41. Elizabeth Loftus
    • lost in mall study
    • her memory of her mother's death
    • when subjects imagine somehting happened to them about 30% begin to actually believe it happened.
  42. function of knowledge
    • when interpreting new info, you use old info to help
    • the more you know about a topic the easier it is to learn about more in the same topic.
  43. semantic memory
    • general knowledge of the world
    • (knowing what a maiden name is)
  44. semantic network model
    info stored hierarchically and nodes are connected by links.
  45. directly associated properties
    nodes with their own characteristics in the network model
  46. nodes through inheritance
    nodes take on another nodes' characteristics through inheritance
  47. semantic verification test
    • having to answer T/F as quickly as possible, want reaction time not accuracy.
    • info in the test is assumed knowledge
    • tests the connections b/t the nodes
  48. theories of semantic memory
    • feature overlap model
    • spreading activation model
  49. spreading activation model
    • concepts are still nodes but might be represented many times; designed to capture real relationship b/t items;
    • differs for every person b/c items associated diff for everyone
  50. spreading activation
    when an item is mentioned other items are activated
  51. expertise
    helps the retrieval process
  52. feature overlap model
    concepts not nodes but a set of features - defining and characteristic
  53. typicality effect
    • highly typical items are verified faster than nontypical ones
    • (canary verified faster as a bird than a penguin)
  54. defining features
    • absolutely critical to the concept
    • (birds have wings)
  55. characteristics features
    • not critical to the concept
    • (birds fly - not all do)
  56. linguistic hedges
    • a match on both defining and characteristic features
    • technically speaking = match on defining features only
    • loosely speaking = match on characteristic features only

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