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- President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces. Policy of equipping
- and training of the South Vietnamese to fight for themselves
Kent State Massacre
- Protests to the war that lead to National Guard being called in and shot students because they burned the ROTC building. Students protested in Ohio against the US invasion of Cambodia. They became violent, the
- national guard came in, and they continued to throw rocks at them. the guard first at the students killing 4
Paris Accords (1973)
- 1973 peace agreement between the United States, South Vietnam, North
- Vietnam, and the Vietcong that effectively ended the Vietnam War.
Ho Chi Minh City
New name of Saigon, after Communism in N. Vietnam took over S. Vietnam , this all happened after U.S. left the war in vietnam
- "realistic politics," practical politics, ends justified the means,
- power more important than principles. The idea that governments should
- obtain what they need in a realistic, non-Utopian manner. Bismark was
- the ideal practioner of this.
Dr. Henry Kissinger
- United States diplomat who served under President Nixon and President
- Ford (born in 1923). , reinforced Nixon's thinking. In 1969, Kissinger
- had begun meeting secretly with North Vietnamese officials in Paris to
- negotiate an end to the war in Vietnam.
- This is the name given to Henry Kissinger travelling back and forth to
- Isreal, Egypt, and Syria to help end the oil embargo. International
- negotiations conducted by a mediator who frequently flies back and forth
- between the negotiating parties
- French word meaning an easing of tensions between the world's
- superpowers during the Cold War, relaxation of tensions between the
- United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and
- Treaty signed in 1972 between the U.S. and the USSR. This agreement
- limited the number of missiles in each nation and led to the SALT II
- discussions and a slowdown of the arms race between the two countries.
- During the Vietnam War, the Nixon Doctrine was created. It stated that
- the United States would honor its exisiting defense commitments, but in
- the future other countries would have to fight their own wars without
- support of American troops.
General Augusto Pinochet
- was ruler of Chile from 1973 till 1990. He promoted foreign investment
- and privatized industry, and basically tried to solve economic problems
- by sponsoring capitalism. He also killed and tortured many people,
- political opponents.
- Socialist politician elected president of Chile in 1970 and overthrown
- by the military in 1973. He died during the military attack., President
- of Chile from 1970 to 1973, a member of the Socialist Party, he
- attempted to institute a number of democratic reforms in Chilean
- politics. He was overthrown and assassinated in 1973 during a military
- coup lead by General Augusto Pinochet.
1973 Arab Oil Embargo
- After the Yom Kippur war. OPEC stops all oil exports to the US for
- helping israel. As a result the gas prices in the US went up 70% and the
- Alaskan pipe line was founded
Chief Justice Warren Burger
- Chief Justice of the Supreme Court although considered more conservative
- in leadership than earl warren his court uphelp school busing a woman's
- right to an abortion and ordered nixon to surrender the watergate
- tapes, Supreme Court chief Justice considered a strict constitutionist
Senator George McGovern
- George Stanley McGovern, Ph.D (born July 19, 1922) is a former United
- States Representative, Senator, and Democratic presidential nominee.
- McGovern lost the 1972 presidential election in a landslide to incumbent
- Richard Nixon. McGovern was most noted for his opposition to the
- Vietnam War. He is currently serving as the United Nations global
- ambassador on hunger.
- a process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with
- cheaper labor, leaving the newly de-industrialized region to switch to a
- service economy & work through a period of high unemployment
- The means of economic planning which reflect the belief that the
- government should intervene in inflationary times by regulating the
- maximum prices that can be charged and the wages that can be paid. Such
- controls would be imposed only on the largest industries.
- During the 60's and 70's, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and
- 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an
- economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation of its
- industrial growth.
CREEP: Committee to Re-Elect the President
- Nixon's committee for re-electing the president. Found to have been
- engaged in a "dirty tricks" campaign against the democrats in 1972. They
- raised tens of millions of dollars in campaign funds using unethical
- means. They were involved in the infamous Watergate cover-up.
- A break-in at the Democratic National Committee offices in the Watergate
- complex in Washington was carried out under the direction of White
- House employees. Disclosure of the White House involvement in the
- break-in and subsequent cover-up forced President Nixon to resign in
- 1974 to avoid impeachment.
Concerns first that the US Presidency was out of control and second that the Presidency had exceeded the Constitutional limits.
G. Gordon Liddy
- Chief operative for the White House Plumbers unit that existed during
- several years of Nixon's Presidency. Masterminded the first break-in of
- the Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate building
- in 1972. Served 4.5 years in prison.
- one of the "plumbers" who worked for the White House to plug "leaks" to
- the media; he committeed illegal break-ins and surveillances. His
- revelations in 1973 that he was being paid to keep quiet began the
- unraveling of the Watergate cover-up
E. Howard Hunt
- Worked for the Nixon White House, in charge of the Watergate break in,
- convicted and went to jail for his involvement. former CIA officer
- guided the burglers by walkie talkie from hotel on opposite side of the
Senator George McGovern
- Name given to the special investigations committee established along
- with CREEP in 1971. Its job was to stop the leaking of confidential
- information to the public and press.
- Harry Robbins was an American political aide and businessman, best known
- for his service as White House Chief of Staff to President Richard
- Nixon and for his role in events leading to the Watergate burglaries and
- the Watergate scandal — for which he was found guilty of conspiracy and
- obstruction of justice.
- John Daniel Ehrlichman was counsel and Assistant to the President for
- Domestic Affairs under President Richard Nixon. He was a key figure in
- events leading to the Watergate first break-in and the ensuing Watergate
- scandal, for which he was convicted of conspiracy, obstruction of
- justice and perjury.
Judge John Sirica
- The judge who tried the Watergate burglars who eventually uncovered a
- connection to the Nixon White House. An unmerciful federal judge that
- led the criminal trial of the Watergate break-in.
Senator Sam Ervin
- Sam Ervin was a senator from North Carolina. He was chairman of the
- Senate Select Committee to Investigate Presidential Campaign Practices
- during the Watergate scandal.
- SPECIAL COUNSEL TO THE PRESIDENT; served seven months in prison in 1974
- after pleading guilty to obstruction of justice in the Watergate-related
- Daniel Esberg case; indicted for his role in the Watergate cover-up
John W. Dean, III
Became Chief legal advisor to Nixon. He famously said that he had a cancer on the Presidency.
A cancer in the Presidency!
- Words by Dean which basically stated that Nixon was a cancer on the
- Presidency for his actions. He was a cancer on the Presidency for his
- poor policies as well.
- A professor of Harvard law school who also worked with the Department of
- Labor. He was the appointed Special Prosecutor over the Watergate case.
Nixon's secretary of defense, and then his attorney general incharge of investigating the watergate scandal.
- He was the next Special Prosecutor of the Watergate case after Cox was
- fired. Jaworski was responsible for bringing to light many damaging
- facts of the Watergate break-in and subsequent cover-up.
Saturday Night Massacre
- Archibald Cox, the prosecutor of the Watergate scandal case who had
- issued a subpoena of the tapes, was fired. Both the attorney general and
- deputy general resigned because they, themselves did not want to fire
- Cox. It was the dismissal of independent special prosecutor Archibald
- Cox, and the resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and
- Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus during the Watergate scandal
- Woodward's anonymous source to the Watergate scandal; eventually
- revealed himself to be Mark Felt, the Deputy Director of the FBI.
- This deputy director of the FBI was "Deep Throat", an inside source on
- the watergate investigation. Nixon impeachment informant, known as "deep
- throat" supplied info to reporters because he felt nixon broke the law
- and was disgruntled at not becoming head of the FBI
Worked for the Washington Post. Wrote about the Watergate Scandal
- Assistant managing editor of The Washington Post. While an investigative
- reporter for that newspaper, Woodward, working with fellow reporter
- Carl Bernstein, helped uncover the Watergate scandal that led to U.S.
- President Richard Nixon's resignation. Woodward has written 12
- best-selling non-fiction books and has twice contributed reporting to
- efforts that collectively earned the Post and its National Reporting
- staff a Pulitzer Prize.
- evidence that Nixon had participated in the Watergate cover-up, which
- led to certain impeachment, a reference to an object or fact that serves
- as conclusive evidence of a crime or similar act
Senator Howard Baker
- Senator from Tennessee. Became the 2nd senator elected in a peripheral
- south state in the modern era. Also appealed directly to the blacks.
- First group of Southern Republican senators built the strongest
- political base. VP of Senate Watergate Committee "What did Nixon know
- and when did he know it?"
What did the President know, and when did he know it?
- Words of Senator Howard Baker, which described the general curiousity of
- the public towards the controversy of the Watergate Scandal.
- White House aid that revealed existence of tapes. A man who testified
- that Nixon had a taping system installed in the Oval Office
I am not a crook!
President Richard Nixon infamously denied any involvement in the Watergate scandal with his now timeless defense.
Helsinki Accords 1975
- The Final Act of the Helsinki conference in 1975 in which the
- thirty-five nations participating agreed that Europe's existing
- political frontiers could not be changed by force. They also solemnly
- accepted numerous provisions guaranteeing the human rights and political
- freedoms of their citizens.
- Last official battle of the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War
- involving capture of the ship by Cambodian forces. Peace time military
- rescue operation conducted by American armed forces against Cambodia
- Whip Inflation Now (WIN) was an attempt to spur a grassroots movement to
- combat inflation, by encouraging personal savings and disciplined
- spending habits in combination with public measures, urged by U.S.
- President Gerald Ford. People who supported the mandatory and voluntary
- measures were encouraged to wear "WIN" buttons, perhaps in hope of
- evoking in peacetime the kind of solidarity and voluntarism symbolized
- by the V-campaign during World War II.
Ford to NYC: DROP DEAD!
- President Ford declared flatly today that he would veto any bill calling
- for "a federal bail-out of New York City" and instead proposed
- legislation that would make it easier for the city to go into
This was the only Vice President not elected by the American people who ran with Gerald Ford.
- Highly driven, however, Carter soon became restless and decided to run
- for public office for the first time in 1962. Jimmy Who? offers a fluid
- overview of these events by combining rare film footage and interviews
- with friends, colleagues, and historians. The segment climaxes with
- Carter's attempts to pass legislation during his first year as
Senator Walter Mondale
- He was the vice president of Carter and when he won the democratic
- nomination he was defeated by a landslide by Reagan. He was the first
- presidential candidate to have a woman vice president, Geraldine
National Energy Act 1978
- a law enacted during Carter admin, established a tax on gas-guzzling
- cars, removed price controls on US oil and natural gas, and provided tax
- credits for development of alternative energy sources, law that aimed
- to conserve energy
- Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks. A second treaty was signed on
- June 18, 1977 to cut back the weaponry of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.
- because it was getting too competitive. Set limits on the numbers of
- weapons produced. Not passed by the Senate as retaliation for U.S.S.R.'s
- invasion of Afghanistan, and later superseded by the START treaty. ,
- Additional arms limitations signings in 1979 which places limits on
- long-range missiles, bombers and nuclear warheads.
Camp David Accords 1978
- The first signed agreement between Israel and an Arab country, in which
- Egyptian president Anwar Sadat recognized Israel as a legitimate state
- and Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin agreed to return the Sinai
- Peninsula to Egypt.
Panama Canal Treaties 1978
- Passed by President Carter, these called for the gradual return of the
- Panama Canal to the people and government of Panama. They provided for
- the transfer of canal ownership to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed its
Malaise speech 1979
- The speech Carter delivered in response to the energy crisis, it was
- most notable for Carter's bleak assessment of the national condition and
- his claim that there was a "crisis of confidence" that had struck "at
- the very heart and soul of our national will". The speech helped fuel
- charges that the president was trying to blame his own problems on the
- American people.
crisis of confidence
- 1979, US power is waning, economic problems at home, a.k.a Malaise
- Speech; Carter fires entire cabinet and reelects all positions to insure
- no corruption in future