Urinary system.txt

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Urinary system.txt
2009-11-04 22:48:12
Test 3 - urinary system

class notes on urinary system
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  1. during prolonged fasting, kindeys supply glucose
  2. enzyme that helps regulat blood pressure and function of kidneys
  3. horomone that stimulates production of RBCs in bone marrow
  4. urinary and reproductive systems both orginate from ____________
    urogenital ridge
  5. except in males _______ is used for urine and semen transport
  6. develops during hte 4th week of development
    persist only through the 6th week
    most superior position of the 3 types is connected to cloaca by the proneprhic duct
    non functional and degenraters
    its duct is used by meonephric kidney
    akso part of duct that forms part of metanephic kidney
  7. mesonephros
    • develops at end of the 4th week
    • functions throught embryonic development
  8. Metanephros
    • begins development during the 5th week
    • becomes functional at the end of the 8th week
    • urine is explled into amniotic fluid
  9. ______ initally drains urine
  10. umbilicus
    belly button
  11. reddish brown and lima bean shaped
  12. behind peritoneal cavity
  13. deep depression on concave side
    renal sinus
  14. entrance to renal sinus
  15. inner layer of 3 layer fatty fibrous pouch in which kidneys are embeeded in; attachment and protects from trauma and infection
    renal capsule
  16. Middle layer of 3 layer fatty fibrous pouch in which kidneys are embeeded in; protection
    adipose capsule
  17. outer layer of 3 layer fatty fibrous pouch in which kidneys are embeeded in; anchors kidneys to peritonem and abdomnal wall
    renal fascia
  18. When supports give away and kidneys drop
    Renal ptosis
  19. annorexia nervosa
    renal ptosis may happen ( when support gives away and kidneys drop )
  20. redish- brown and granluar
    outer layer of kidney
  21. darker color and stropped
    inner layer of kidney
    has 8-15 renal pyramids sepertaed by renal columns
    apexes are pointed toward renal sinuses
  22. 8-15 located in medulla of kidney
    renal pyramids
  23. renal pyrmaids are seperated by ______________ in the medulla of kidney
    renal columns
  24. apexes in medulla of kidney are pointed toward __________
    renal sinuses
  25. receives urine from nephrons
    collecting duct
  26. larger collecting depression is ______________
    major calyx
  27. smaller collectind depression is ____________________
    minor calyx
  28. largest collectind depression is _________________---
    renal pelvis
  29. _________transports urine from kidney
  30. Nephron
    • functional unit of kidney
    • responsible for fomration of urine
  31. capilaries in _______are 100-400 times as porous as thos in skeletal muscle
  32. few proteins can pass due to finger/net- like _________
  33. Urinary tubulles
    • parts of nephrons:
    • glomerular ( bowman's capsule )
    • proximal convuletd tube
    • descending and ascending limb of loop of Henle
    • distal convoluted tube
  34. ureters
    • retropertionale in location
    • 25 cm long
    • thickets where enters bladder
    • 1.7 cm diameter
  35. secretes mucus to lubricate and protect ureter; continous with lining of renal tubules and urinary bladder
    mucosa (of urters)
  36. inner longitudinal and outer ciruclar layer of smooth muscle; causes urine to "spurt" into bladder; proximal 1/3 has 3rd longitudinal layer
    muscularis persiatl waves move urine
  37. storage sac for urine
    in females - on contact with ureters and vagina
    in males - prostate gland is below bladder
    urinary bladder
  38. once functional as urethra and secures apex
  39. innermost streches
    has flaps over ureters to prevent blackflow
    -Mucosa (of urinary bladder )
  40. 3 layres and reffered to as detrusor muscle
    modifed to fomr a sphinceter at urethra
    Muscularis ( of urinary bladder)
  41. also known as muscularis of urinary bladder
    detrusor muscle
  42. outer most layer of urinary bladder, only on superior surface, actually continuation of peritonemum
  43. conveys urine from urinary bladder to outside of body
  44. conveys urine from urinary bladder to outside of body
  45. area between two urinary bladder layers
  46. formed by detursor muscle of urinary bladder
    internal urethral sphincter
  47. voulntary straited mucels
    external urethral sphincter
  48. in females it emtpites urine through the _____________ and ___________ is anterior to vagina and 2.5 cm posterior of the clitoris
    urethral orifice
  49. vestibule between the __________________
    labia minora
  50. 2.5 cm long
    reciees drainge from protate gland and 2 ejaculatory ducts
    prostatic urethra
  51. 0.5 cm long
    external urethral muscle is here!
    membranous urethra
  52. 15cm long
    surrounded by erectile tissue
    penile urethra
  53. urination
  54. medical specilaity in urinary system
  55. analysis of urine for diagnosing health
  56. in males only, urethra is open on the underside of penis
  57. inn males only, urethra is open on upperside of penis
  58. urinary bladder infection
  59. renal pelvis infection
  60. nephron infection
  61. inflammiton of entire kidney
    may be succefully treated with antibiotic therapy
  62. low urinary output
    nephrons may cease to function
    blood pressure may be too low
  63. need to get up and urinate during the night (very common in ederly)
  64. bladder unable to expel its urine
    treatment may require inserito of a cather (rubber drainage tube)
    urinary retention
  65. susbtatance that is toxic to kidney
  66. kidney stones, crystalized calcium, magnesium, or uric acid,
    may be caused by frequent bacterial infections, urinary retention, high con of calcium in blood, alkaline urine.

    - cranberry jucie and large amount of water may reduce incidence
    renal calculi
  67. inability to contol micturtion (peeing) voulantrily
    normal in infants
  68. nocturnal enuresis
    • bed weeting
    • most common in young and old persons
  69. viewing tube that is inserted into bladder
    examaine mucosal surface of bladder
  70. appitite for abnormal substances
    indicated electrolyte deficiences
  71. counteracts acidity
    used to manage heartburn