24 fluids and electrolyte

Card Set Information

Author:
carolyn
ID:
77507
Filename:
24 fluids and electrolyte
Updated:
2011-10-13 07:41:28
Tags:
MS
Folders:

Description:
MS
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user carolyn on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. maintenance of the internal environment within very narrow limits
    homeostasis
  2. equilibrium that is essential to life
    homeostasis
  3. small changes that occur in response to physiologic changes
    homeostasis
  4. anything that occupies space and possesses mass. has physical properties such as odor, color ,hardness, and density
    matter
  5. basic substances that compose matter
    elements
  6. what are elements made up of
    atoms
  7. smallest unit of chemical structure that no chemical change could alter
    atoms
  8. what are atoms made up of
    • protons
    • electrons
    • neutrons
  9. this has a positive charge
    proton
  10. this has no charge
    neutron
  11. what charge does an electron have
    negative
  12. when atoms of two or more different elements combine they form a ______
    compound
  13. an example of a compound
    sodium chloride
  14. percentage of water in an adult body
    60%
  15. percentage of water in a child
    60-77%
  16. percentage of water in an infant
    70-80%
  17. a major component of blood
    water
  18. this is involved in many of the body's physical adn physiological responses
    water
  19. a compound that dissacociates into ions in water
    electrolyte
  20. two important gases in the body
    oxygen adn carbon dioxide
  21. how does oxygen get transported to body cells
    by red blood cells
  22. how does oxygen enter the body
    through the lungs
  23. gas produced by cells and transported in blood to lungs
    carbon dioxide
  24. substance that in solution yields hydrogen ions bearing positive charge
    acid
  25. substance that when disassociated produces ions that will combine with hydrogen ions
    base
  26. formed when acid adn base react with each other
    salt
  27. what is the pH level of the body affected by
    illness
  28. how is the number of the pH level determined
    by the artery
  29. pH below 7.35 yields
    acidosis
  30. pH above 7.45 yields
    alkalosis
  31. normal pH of arterial blood
    7.35-7.45
  32. substances that attempt to maintain pH range in presence of added acids or bases and act to keep pH of body fluids within normal range is called
    buffers
  33. ability of membrane to permit substances to pass through
    permeability
  34. allows passage of only certain substances
    selectively permeable membrane
  35. if blood pHfalls to 7 or becomes acidic what will happen
    death
  36. what must substances be able to do
    enter and leave cells
  37. the diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
    osmosis
  38. pressure exerted against the cell membrane by the water inside a cell
    osmotic pressure
  39. fluids and substances that are forced through cell membranes by hydrostatic pressure
    filtration
  40. accomplished by means of carrier molecules and can latch onto specific molecules and transport then in or out of cells
    active transport
  41. requires expenditure of cellular energy
    active transport
  42. needed for survival and physiologic functioning. cells need a continued source of water, nutrients, oxygen, and mechanism to remove cellular wastes
    fluid and electrolyte balance
  43. contains all water and ions inside cells and approximately 65 percent of water in the body is found in this compartment
    intracellular
  44. interstitial fluid, intravascular fluid and other fluids outside the cell
    extracellular
  45. what happens when fluid accumulates in tissue space
    edema occurs
  46. when more water is lost from the body than is replaced
    dehydration
  47. estimated water loss through the skin of an average adult
    300 - 500 ml per day
  48. when a person is not aware of water loss
    insensible loss
  49. insensible water loss of 400 - 500 ml per day occurs with ______
    expired air
  50. how much of water is lost per day through feces
    200 ml
  51. organ that maintains fluid balance
    kidney
  52. how much water do the kidneys lose per day
    1000 - 1500 ml
  53. how much fluids should be replaced
    by the amount lost
  54. primary source of fluid replacement
    water
  55. what are the regulators of fluid adn electrolyte balance
    • skin
    • lungs
    • gi tract
    • kidneys
  56. how much fluid is replaced by metabolism
    8 - 10 percent
  57. what group is most at risk for dehydration
    elderly
  58. main electrolyte that promotes the retention of water
    sodium
  59. buffer system that works to regulate pH in both intracellular and extracellular fluids
    bicarbonate buffer
  60. the primary buffer system
    bicarbonate buffer
  61. buffer involved in regulating the pH of intracellular fluid and the fluid of the kidney tubules
    phosphate buffer
  62. complex substances that form when amino acids bond
    protein buffer
  63. tendency of molecules of either gases, liquids or solids to move from a regon of higher concentration to a region of lwer concentration until qulibrium is reached (example smoke)
    diffusion
  64. shrinking of cells
    crenation
  65. passive transport consists of
    diffusion, osmosis, filtration
  66. what is the most capable fluid that could go with your blood
    normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride)
  67. interstitial space
    space between cells
  68. Average loss of fluid in a day
    2600 ml
  69. loss of water causes a rise in extracellular osmotic pressure and pulls water out of the cells and into the
    extracellular space is known as:
    hypernatremia
  70. tx for hypernatremia
    Limit foods high in sodium
  71. tremors, hyperreflexia, restlessness increased temp. are all s/s of:
    hypernatremia
  72. too little sodium; too much water;
    hyponatremia
  73. prolong vomiting, diarrhea, excessive perspiration, diuretics are all causes of
    hyponatremia
  74. s/s abdominal cramps,
    confusion, dry mucous membranes, dry skin, edema
    hyponatremia
  75. tx for hyponatremia
    encourage sodium rich foods
  76. excess sodium; loss of water, decrease renal function are causes of:
    hypernatremia
  77. extensive trauma, renal disease, insulin deficiency are causes of:
    hyperkalemia
  78. s/s: anxiety, cardiac
    arrest diarrhea, EKG changes
    hyperkalemia
  79. tx for hyperkalemia
    • IV calcium gluconate,
    • kayexalate (metabolic alkalosis)
  80. loss of gastric fluids, use of diuretics are causes of:
    hypokalemia
  81. s/s paralytic ileus, polyuria, polydipsia, elevated blood glucose
    hypokalemia
  82. tx for hypokalemia
    encourage potassium rich foods
  83. most common most serious fluid imbalance
    dehydration
  84. major electrolyte in intracellular fluid
    potassium
  85. maintains normal nerve and muscle activity
    potassium
  86. excessive loss of hydrogen ions
    alkalosis
  87. symptoms include state of nervous
    system activity, spasmodic muscle contraction, convulsions, death
    alkalosis
  88. buffer system found inside hemoglobin cells
    protein buffer
  89. what determines the formation of carbon dioxide
    rate of metabolism
  90. what does the kidney excrete to make the urine more alkaline
    bicarbonate ions
  91. what does the kidney excrete to make the urine more acidic
    hydrogen ions
  92. measures the level of oxygen and carbon dioxide in arterial blood
    ABG
  93. any condition that depresses ventilation is
    considered; increase in hydrogen ions, increase PCO2
    respiratory acidosis
  94. increased hydrogen ions is a _____ of pH level
    decrease
  95. decrease hydrogen ions is a ______ of pH level
    increase
  96. any over stimulation of the respiratory system such as hyperventilation, meningitis, pulmonary embolism etc is considered
    respiratory alkalosis
  97. an increase concentration of hydrogen ions or a
    decrease in bicarbonate concentration indicates
    metabolic acidosis
  98. metabolic acidosis is most common with what types of people
    diabetics, kidney disease

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview