eye meds

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Author:
carolyn
ID:
77515
Filename:
eye meds
Updated:
2011-04-05 07:05:38
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pharm
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pharm
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  1. classification of eye medications
    • anti-infective
    • anti-inflammatory
    • anti-glaucoma
    • mydriatics
    • local anesthetics
  2. opthalmic topical ointment and solution available for treatment of superficial infections of the eye caused by susceptible oragnisms
    anti-infective
  3. opthalmic antibiotic preps/meds
    • macrolides
    • bacitracin
    • sulfonamides
  4. anti-infective not considered first line therapy because of resistence and cost
    fluoroquinolones
  5. why are aminoglycosides avoided as eye meds
    because of toxicity to coreneal epithelium
  6. what should you consider if there is no improvement in 2-3 days of antiinfectives
    • suspect microbial resistance
    • inappropriate drug of choice
    • incorrect dosage
  7. topical antiinfective therapy should not exceed ____ days
    10
  8. how should eye medication be instilled
    in the lower conjunctival sac to avoid contamnation of tip
  9. antiinfective PE
    • possible hypersensitivity
    • dont use eye makeup or contact lenses during treatment
  10. what should you instruct a Pt. to do when using more than one opthalmic med.?
    • space 5 minutes apart
    • administer most viscious med last
  11. anti infective side effects
    • conjunctivits
    • blurred vision
    • burning
    • stinging
    • rash
  12. antiinfective CI
    viral/fungal disease of ocular structure
  13. treatment to relieve inflammation of the eye or conjunctiva in allergic reactions, burns, postop, and irritation from foreign substances
    anti-inflammatory
  14. types of anti-inflammatory agents
    • Antihistamines
    • Corticosteroids
    • Opthalmic immunologic agent
    • Nsaids

    (ACON)
  15. relieves ocular pruritis (itching) associated w/ allergic conjunctivitis
    antihistamine
  16. causes vasoconstriction of blood vessels & provides relief from minor eye irritation
    decongestant
  17. antihistamine/decongestant meds
    • naphcon-A
    • visine- A
  18. treatment useful in acute stages of eye injury to prevent scarring (SHORT TERM)
    corticosteroids
  19. who can prescribe corticosteroids
    opthalmolgists
  20. how is systemic absorption of corticosteroids minimized
    apply pressure on inner canthus
  21. corticosteroids SE
    delayed healing of cornea wounds, cornea thinning, cornea ulceration

    reduced resistance to bacteria, virus, fungus

    increased intraocular pressure (depends on dose, frequency, treatment time)

    • stinging, burning
    • ocular pain
    • cataracts
  22. corticosteroid CI
    • acute bacterial, viral or fungal infections
    • primary open-angle glaucoma
    • pregnancy
    • prolonged use
  23. corticosteroid meds
    • prednisolone
    • dexamethasone
    • flurometholone

    (pdf)
  24. treatment to produce tear production
    opthalmic immunologic agents
  25. OIA meds
    restasis
  26. -when administered systemically, it’s an immunosuppressive agent for organ transplant rejection prophylaxis

    -when administered topically, has minimal risk of systemic toxicity
    restasis (topical cyclosporine)
  27. SE of OIA
    • Ocular burning
    • stinging
    • blurred vision
  28. CI of OIA
    applies to pts w/ active ocular infections; has not been studied in pts w/ chronic dry eye
  29. treatment for postop inflammation following cataract surgery
    NSAIDS
  30. NSAID eye meds
    • Acular
    • Ocufen
  31. not first line agents for other eye conditions w/ inflammation, but are alternative to corticosteroids if any contraindications
    NSAID
  32. NSAID caution
    allergy to asprin
  33. abnormal condition in which increased intraocular pressure due to obstruction of outflow of aqueous humor
    glaucoma
  34. 2 types of glaucoma
    • acute angle closure glaucoma
    • chronic open angle glaucoma
  35. -sudden onset of pain, blurred vision, dilated pupil
    -considered medical emergency
    -if untreated, can cause blindness w/in few hours or days
    Acute (angle-closure) glaucoma
  36. -more common
    -bilateral
    -develops slowly over periods of years w/ few symptoms except gradual loss of peripheral vision & blurred vision
    -halos & central blindness are late manifestations
    Chronic (open-angle) glaucoma
  37. Acute angle closure glaucoma treatment
    • miotics (pilocarpine)
    • osmotic agents/diuretics (mannitol)
    • carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (diamox)
    • surgery
  38. Chronic (open-angle) glaucoma Treatment:
    • miotics
    • carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
    • local beta-adrenergic blockers (timolol drops)
  39. 1st step in glaucoma therapy
    ensure pt abstains from meds that will exacerbate glaucoma such as potent corticosteroids, antihistamines, anticholinergics.
  40. 5 catgories of antiglaucoma drugs
    Beta-adrenergic blockers: timolol (decrease rate of Aqueous Humor production)

    Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: diamox (decrease formation of AH)

    Alpha agonists: alphagan-P (decrease production of AH & increase outflow)

    Miotics: pilocarpine (Increase AH outflow)

    Prostaglandin analogs: xalatan (Increase AH outflow)
  41. -gold standard against new glaucoma treatments
    -used topically
    Beta-adrenergic blockers: timolol
  42. Beta-adrenergic blockers: timolol SE
    • aggrevation of preexisting cardiovascular & pulmonary disorders bradycardia
    • hypotension
    • dizziness
    • bronchospasm
  43. a cardioselective beta-blocker used w/ caution in pts w/ bronchospastic pulmonary disease since it does not affect the pulmonary receptors
    Betaxolol (Betoptic-S)
  44. reduce formation of hydrogen & bicarbonate ions
    Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
  45. -selective alpha-agonist that decreases formation & increases outflow of AH w/ minimal effects on cardiovascular or pulmonary hemodynamics

    -alternative for those who have topical beta-blocker therapy contraindications
    Alpha agonists: alphagan-P
  46. -cause pupil contractions
    -reduces intraocular pressure by increasing AH outflow
    -contracts ciliary muscles
    -considered 3rd line therapy due to SE
    -SHORT TERM treatment before surgery -has cholinergic action & SE
    Miotics: pilocarpine
  47. -cause the greatest reduction in IOP
    Prostaglandin analogs: xalatan & travatan
  48. used topically to dilate the pupil for examinations
    mydriatics
  49. medication that acts as a cyclopegic
    atropine
  50. paralyzes the muscle of accomodation
    cyclopegic
  51. a sympathomimetic that produces mydriasis w/o cycloplegia
    phenylephrine
  52. mydriatic PE
    Aseptic technique must be used

    Administration by closing tear duct after installation

    Sensitivity to light
  53. applied topically for minor surgical procedures, removal of foreign bodies or painful injury
    local anesthetic
  54. local anesthtic medication
    tetracaine (tetra visc)
  55. local anesthetic PE
    (pts given anesthetics): wear eye patch after use of tetracaine due to loss of blinking reflex

    • (pts taking anesthetics):
    • -crucial to continue glaucoma treatment for a lifetime & have regular eye exams to prevent future vision damage

    • -aseptic technique
    • -apply gentle pressure to inner canthus
    • -use of eyecup to aid administration
    • -close eye gently
  56. prolonged use due to danger of corneal erosions
    local anesthtic CI
  57. SE: rare, expect w/ prolonged use – hypersensitivity
    Anaphylaxis (pts allergic to –caine meds)
    local anesthetic

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