test # 2 notes

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test # 2 notes
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HRM test prep
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  1. OSHA
    Occupational Safety and Health Act
  2. OSHA Standards
    • 1. Appy to general industry, maritime, construction and agriculture
    • 2. Cover the workplace, machinery and equipment, material, power sources, processing, protective clothing, first aid, and administrative requirements
  3. Enforcing OSHA Standards
    • 1. Workplace inspections
    • 2. Citations and penalties
    • 3. On-site consultations
  4. OSHA first level:
    Inspection of imminent danger
  5. Second level
    Inspection of catastrophes, fatalities and serious accidents
  6. Third level
    Investigation of valid employee complaints
  7. Fourth level
    Aimed at high-hazard industries
  8. Willful
    Employer intentionally and knowingly commits or violates OSHA law
  9. Serious
    Violation where death or serious harm could result
  10. Other than serious
    Violation direct relationship to job safety and health, but unlikely to cause death or serious physical harm.
  11. Right to know laws
    Laws that require employers to advise employees about the hazardous chemicals they handle
  12. MSDS
    Documents that contain vital info about hazardous substances
  13. HCS
    Hazard Communication Standard
  14. Hazard Communication Standard
    OSHA published hazardous chemical regulations prescribes a system for communication data on health risks of handling certain materials
  15. HLPSA
    Hazardous Liquid Pipeline and Safety Act
  16. Recordable case
    Occupational death, illness or injury to be recorded in the log
  17. Elements in creating a safe work environment
    • 1. Safety motivation and knowledge
    • 2. Enforcement of Safety rules
    • 3. Safety awareness programs
    • 4. Accident Investigations and records
  18. Cumulative trauma disorders
    Injuries involving tendons of the fingers, hands and arms that become inflamed from rpeatred stresses and strains
  19. Depression
    Negative emotional state marked by feelings of low spirits gloominess sadness and loss of pleasure in ordinary activities
  20. Stress
    Any adjustive deman caused by physical, mental or emotional factors that requires coping behavior
  21. Eustress
    Positive stress that ccompanies achievement and exhileration
  22. Distress
    Harmful stress characterized by a loss of feelings of security and adequacy
  23. Burnout
    Severe stage of distress, manifesting in depression, frustration and loss of productivity
  24. High demand
    • Having too much to do in too short a time
    • High effort
    • Having to expec too much mental or physical energy over too long a period
  25. Low control
    Too little influence over the way a job is done on a day-to-day basis
  26. Low reward
    Receiving inadequate feedback on performance and no recognition for a job well done.
  27. Employee Assistance PRograms
    • 1. Personal crises
    • 2. Depression
    • 3. Alcoholism
    • 4. Abuse of Illegal drugs
    • 5. Abuse of Legal Drugs
  28. Why was OSHA designed?
    To help assure safe and healthful working conditions for everyone working.
  29. What are key responsibilities of OSHA?
    • 1. Sets standards
    • 2. Ensures employer and employee compliance
    • 3. Providing safety and health consultation and training where needed.
  30. Crisis management teams
    • Teams composed of hourly and managerial employees conduct
    • 1. Intitial risk assessment surveys
    • 2. Develop action plans to respond to violent situations
    • 3. Perform crisis intervention during violent or potentially violent encounters
  31. Direct compensation
    • 1. Wages/salaries
    • 2. Commissions
    • 3. Bonuses
    • 4. Gainsharing
  32. Indirect Compensation
    • 1. Time noto worked
    • 2. Insurance plans
    • 3. Security plans
    • 4. Employee services
  33. Pay for performance standard
    A standard by which managers tie compensation to employee effort and performance
  34. HRM Compensation functions
    • 1. Recruiting
    • 2. Selecting
    • 3. Training and development
    • 4. Compensation management
    • 5. Labor relations
  35. Pay equity
    An employee's perception that compensation received is equal to the value of the work performed.
  36. Hourly work
    Work paid on an hourly basis
  37. Piecework
    Work paid according to the number of units produced
  38. Nonexempt employees
    Employees covered by the overtime provisions of the fair labor standards act.
  39. Exempt employees
    Employees not covered by the overtime provisions of the faiir labor standards act
  40. Consumer price index (CPI)
    Measure of the average change in prices over time in a fixed market basket of goods and services.
  41. Escalator clauses
    Clauses in labor agreements that provide for quarterly cost-of-living adjustments in wages, basing the adjustments on changes in the consumer price index
  42. Real wages
    Wage increase larger than rises in the consumer price index, that is, the real earning power of wages
  43. Common Strategic Compensation Goals
    • 1. Reward employees� past performance
    • 2. Remain competitive in the labor market
    • 3. Maintain salary equity among employees
    • 4. Mesh employees� future performance with organizational goals
    • 5. Control the compensation budget
    • 6. Attract new employees
    • 7. Reduce unnecessary turnover
  44. Job ranking system
    Simplest and oldest system of job evaluation by which jobs are arrayed on the basis of their relative worth
  45. Job classification system
    System of job evaluation which jobs are classified and grouped according to a series of predetermined wage grades
  46. Point system
    Quantitiative job evaluation procedure that determines the relaive value of a job by the total points assigned to it
  47. Work valuation
    Job evaluation system that seeks to measure a job�s worth through its values to the organization
  48. Hay profile method
    Job evaluation technique using three factors- knowledge, mental activity and accountability to evaluate executive and managerial positions
  49. Wage and salary survey
    Survey of the wages paid to employees of other employers in the surveying organiztion�s relevant labor market
  50. Characteristics of key jobs:
    • 1. Important to employees and the organization
    • 2. Contain a large number of positions.
    • 3. Relatively stable job content
    • 4. Same job content across many organizations
    • 5. Acceptable to employees, management, and labor as appropriate for pay comparisions.
  51. Wage curve
    Scattergram representing the relationship beween relative worth of jobs and wage rates
  52. Page grades
    • Groups of jobs withihn a particular class that are paid the same rate.
    • Red circle rates
    • Payment rates above the maximum of the pay range
  53. Competence-based pay
    • Pay based on an employee�s skill level, variety of skills possessed or increased job knowledge
    • Important compensable situations:
    • 1. Downtime or call-in time
    • 2. Payment for required classes,, meetings etc.
    • 3. Travel between job sites
    • 4. Preparation and cleanup before and after shifts
    • 5. Break periods are shorter than twenty minutes.
  54. Fcomparable worth
    Concept that male and female jobs that are dissimilar, but equal in terms of value or worth to the employer, should be paid the same
  55. No notes for chapter 10
  56. Chief objectives of benefits programs:
    • 1. Improve employee work satisfaction
    • 2. Meet employee health and security requirements
    • 3. Attract and motivate employees
    • 4. Retain top-performing employees
    • 5. Maintain a favorable competitive position
  57. Flexible benefits plans (cafeteria plans)
    Benefit plans that enable individual employees to choose the benefits that are best suited to their particular needs
  58. Flexible Benefit planse
    Benefit plans that enable indiviRdual employees to choose the benefits that are best suited to their particular needs
  59. Employee Benefits Required by law
    • 1. Social Security Insurance
    • 2. Unemployment Insurance
    • 3. Workers� compensation
    • 4. Consolidated Omnibus Budge Reconciliation (COBRA)
    • 5. Family and Medical Leave
    • 6. Older Workers Benefit Protection
  60. Discretionary major employee benefits
    • 1. Health care benefits
    • 2. Payment for time not worked
    • 3. Supplemental unemployment benefits
    • 4. Life insurance
    • 5. Long term care insurance
    • 6. Retirement program
    • 7. Pension plan
    • 8. Employee assistance program
    • 9. Counseling services
    • 10. Child and elder care
    • 11. Other benefits and services
  61. Benefit Concerns of Managemnet
    • 1. Union demands for additional benefits
    • 2. Benefits offered by other employees
    • 3. Tax consequences of benefits
    • 4. Rising costs of providing benefits
    • Health maintenance organizations (HMO)
    • Organizations of physicians and health care professionals that provide a wide range of services to subscribers and dependents on a prepaid basis
  62. Preferred provider organization (PPO)
    A group of physicians who establish an organization that gaurentees lower health care costs to the employer
  63. Consumer �driven health plan (CDHP)
    Medical insurance plan financed by employer constributions to an employee�s individual health care spending account.
  64. Supplemental unemployment benefits (SUBs)
    Plan that enables an employee who is laid off to draw in addition to state unemployment compensation, weekly benefits from the employer that are paid from a fund created for this purpose.
  65. Contributory plan
    Pension plan in which contributions are made jointly by employees and employers.
  66. Noncontributory plan
    Pension plan in which contributors are made soley by the employer
  67. Two categories of pension plans
    • 1. According to contributions made by the employer
    • 2. According to the amount of pension benefits to be paid
  68. Vesting
    Guarantee or accrued benefits to participants at retirement age, regardless of their employment status at that time
  69. Employee assistance programs (EAPs)
    Services provided by employers to help workers cope with a wide variety of problems that interfere with the way they perform their jobs.
  70. Elder care
    Care provided to an elderly relative by an employee who remains actively at work
  71. Social Security Act (1935)
    • 1. Old age and survivors insurance
    • 2. Provides long-term disability benefits
    • 3. Must work 40 quarters in an aoccupation covered by act to qualify for benefits
  72. Performance appraisal
    Process, typically performed annually by a supervisor for a subordinate, designed to help employees understand their roles, objectives, expectations, and performance success.
  73. Performance management
    Process of creating a work environment in which people can perform to the best of their abilities.
  74. 2 Purposes for Performance Appraisal
    • 1. Developmental
    • 2. Administrative
  75. Developmental purposes for Performance Appraisal
    • 1. Provide performance feedback
    • 2. Identify individual strengths/weaknesses
    • 3. Recognize individual performance
    • 4. Assist in goal identification
    • 5. Evaluate goal achievement
    • 6. Identify individual training needs
    • 7. Determine organizational training needs
    • 8. Reinforce authority structure
    • 9. Allow employees to discuss concerns
    • 10. Improve communication
    • 11. Provide a forum for leaders to help
  76. Administrative purposes for performance appraisal
    • 1. Document personnel decisions
    • 2. Determine promotion candidates
    • 3. Determine transfers and assignments
    • 4. Identify poor performance
    • 5. Decide retention or termination
    • 6. Decide on layoffs
    • 7. Validate selection criteria
    • 8. Meet legal requirements
    • 9. Evaluate training programs/progress
    • 10. Personnel planning
    • 11. Make reward/compensation decisions
  77. Reasons Appraisals fail
    • 1. Lack of top-management information and support
    • 2. Unclear performance standards
    • 3. Rater bias
    • 4. Too many forms to complete
    • 5. Use of appraisal program for conflicting (political) purposes.
  78. What are the performance Standards?
    • 1. Strategic Relevance
    • 2. Criterion Deficiency
    • 3. Criterion Containment
    • 4. Reliability
  79. Strategic relevance
    Individual standards directly relate to strategic goals
  80. Criterion deficiency
    Standards capture all of an individual�s contribution
  81. Criterion contamination
    Performance capability is not reduced by external factors
  82. Reliability (consistency)
  83. Standards are quantifiable measurable and stable
  84. Calibration
    Process whereby managers meet to discuss the performance of individual employees to ensure their employee appraisals are in line with one another
  85. Brito v. Zia
    Supreme Court ruled that performance appraisals were subject to the same validity criteria as selection procedures.
  86. Albemarle Paper Company v. Moody
    Supreme Court found that employees had been ranked against a vague standard, open to each supervisor�s own interpretation.
  87. Legal guidelines for performance appraisals
    • 1. Must be job related
    • 2. Employees must be given a written copy of their job standards in advance
    • 3. Managers must be able to observe behavior they are rating.
    • 4. Supervisors must be trained to use the appraisal form correctly.
    • 5. Should be discussed openly with employees and counseling or corrective guidance offered.
    • 6. Appeals procedure should be established
  88. Who should Appraise Performance?
    • 1. Manager/Supervisor
    • 2. Self
    • 3. Subordinate
    • 4. Peer
    • 5. Team
    • 6. Customer
  89. Manager /supervisor appraisal
    Performance appraisal done by an employee�s manager and often reviewed by a manager on level higher
  90. Self-appraisal
    Performance appraisal done by the employee being evaluated, generally on an appraisal form completed by the employee prior to the performance interview.
  91. Subordinate appraisal
    Performance appraisal of a superior by an employee which is more appropriate for development than for administrative purposes.
  92. Peer appraisal
    Performance appraisal done by one�s fellow employees generally on forms that are compiled into a single profile for use in the performance interview conducted by the employee�s manager
  93. Reasons why peer appraisals are not used frequently
    • 1. Peer rating are simply a popularity contest
    • 2. Managers are reluctant to give up control over the appraisal process
    • 3. Those receiving low ratings might retaliate against their peers.
    • 4. Peers rely on stereotypes in ratings
  94. Team appraisal
    Performance appraisal based on TQM management concepts, that recognizes team accomplishment rather than individual performance
  95. Customer appraisal
    Performance appraisal that, like team appraisal, is based on TQM concepts and seeks evaluation from both external and internal customers
  96. Safeguards to ensure its maximum quality and acceptance
    • 1. Assure anonymity
    • 2. Make respondents accountable
    • 3. Prevent �gaming� of the system
    • 4. Use statistical procedures
    • 5. Identify and quantify biases
  97. How to train appraisers
    • 1. Establishing an appraisal plan
    • 2. Eliminating Rater Error
    • 3. Feedback training
  98. Error of central tendency
    Performance rating error in which all employees are rated about average
  99. Leniency or strictness error
    Performance rating error in which the appraiser tends to give employees either unusually high or unusually low ratings
  100. Recency error
    Performance rating error in which the appraisal is based largely on the employee�s most recent behavior rather than on behavior throughout than on behavior throughout the appraisal period
  101. Contrast error
    Performance rating error in which an employee�s evaluation is biased wither upward or downward because of comparison with another employee just previously evaluated
  102. Similar-to-me error
    Performance rating error in which an appraiser inflates the evaluation of an employee because of a mutual personal connection
  103. Trait Appraisal methods:
    • 1. Graphic rating scales
    • 2. Mixed standard scales
    • 3. Forced-choice method
    • 4. Essay method
  104. Graphic rating scale method
    Trait approach to performance appraisal whereby each employee is rated according to a scale of characteristics
  105. Mixed-standard scale method
    A trait approach to performance appraisal similar to other scale methods but based on comparison with (better than, equal to, or worse than) a standard
  106. Forced-choice method
    Trait approach to performance appraisal that requires the rater to choose from statements designed to distinguish between successful and unsuccessful performance
  107. Behavior Appraisal Methods
    • 1. Critical incident
    • 2. Behavioral checklist
    • 3. Behaviorally anchored Rating Scale (BARS)
    • 4. Behavior Observation Scale (BOS)
  108. Critical incident
    Unusual event that denotes superior or inferior employee performance in some part of the job
  109. Behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS)
    Behavioral approach to performance appraisal that consists of a series of vertical scales, one for each important dimension of job performance
  110. Common rater related errors
    • 1. Error of central tendency
    • 2. Leniency or strictness errors
    • 3. Similar to me errors
    • 4. Recency errors
    • 5. Contrast and halo errors
  111. Behavior Observation Scale (BOS)
    Behavioral approach to performance appraisal that measures the frequency of observed behavior
  112. Three reasons why BOS is preferred over BARS
    • 1. Maintaining objectivity
    • 2. Distinguishing good performers from poor performers
    • 3. Providing feedback
    • 4. Identify training needs
  113. Results Appraisal Methods
    • 1. Productivity measures
    • 2. Management by objectives
    • 3. Balanced scorecard
  114. Management by objectives (MBO)
    Philosophy of management that rates performance on the basis of employee achievement of goals set by mutual agreement of employee and manager
  115. Balance Score Card segments
    • 1. Financial
    • 2. Customer
    • 3. Processes
    • 4. Learning
  116. Recommendations for ensuring Balanced Scorecard success
    • 1. Translate the strategy into a scorecard of clear objectives
    • 2. Attach measures to each objectives
    • 3. Cascade scorecards to the front line
    • 4. Provide performance feedback based on measures
    • 5. Empower employees to make performance improvements
    • 6. Reassess strategy
  117. Performance Appraisal methods
    • 1. Trait
    • 2. Behavioral
    • 3. Results
  118. Pros for Trait methods
    • 1. Inexpensive to develop
    • 2. Use meaningful dimensions
    • 3. Easy to use
  119. Pros for Behavioral methods
    • 1. Use specific dimensions
    • 2. Acceptable to employees & superiors
    • 3. Useful for providing feedback
    • 4. Fair for reward and promotion decisions
  120. Pros for Results methods
    • 1. Less subjectivity bias
    • 2. Acceptable to employees & superiors
    • 3. Link individual performance to organizational performance
    • 4. Encourage mutual goal setting
    • 5. Good for reward and promo decisions
  121. Cons of Trait methods
    • 1. High potential for rating errors
    • 2. Not useful for employ counseling
    • 3. Not useful for allocating rewards
    • 4. Not useful for promotion decisions
  122. Cons of Behavioral methods
    • 1. Time-consuming to develop/use
    • 2. Costly to develop
    • 3. Potential for rating error
  123. Cons for Results methods
    • 1. Time consuming to develop/use
    • 2. May encourage a short-term perspective
    • 3. May use contaminated criteria
    • 4. May use deficient criteria
  124. Three types of appraisal interviews
    • 1. Tell and sell interview
    • 2. Tell and listen interview
    • 3. Problem solving interview
  125. Steps to conducting the appraisal interview
    • 1. Ask for a self-assessment
    • 2. Invite participation
    • 3. Express appreciation
    • 4. Minimize criticism
    • 5. Change the behavior not the person
    • 6. Focus on solving problems
    • 7. Be supportive
    • 8. Establish goals
    • 9. Follow up day to day
  126. Tips for using criticism constructively:
    • 1. Consider whether it is really necessary
    • 2. Consider the needs of the employee
    • 3. Be specific, don�t exaggerate
    • 4. Watch your timing
    • 5. Make improvement your goal
  127. Three factors that influence performance
    • 1. Motivation
    • 2. Environment
    • 3. Ability
  128. Wage rate compression
    Compression of pay between new and experienced employees caused by the higher starting salaries of new employees; aslo the differential between hourly workers and their managers
  129. Make questions for interview

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