12 Cranial Nerves, Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology chp 14

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12 Cranial Nerves, Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology chp 14
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  1. NI /Olfactory




    Nerve: "On"
    Type: "Some"
    • Primary functions:
    • -Special sensory
    • Origin:
    • -Receptors of Olfactory epithelium
    • Pass through:
    • -Olfactory foramina in cribriform plate of ethmoid
    • Destination:
    • -Olfactory bulbs

    • Details:
    • -only cranial nerve attached directly to the cerebrum without routing to the nucleui in the diencephlon
    • pg 491
  2. N II/ Optic




    Nerve: "Old"
    Type: "Say"
    • Primary functions:
    • -Special sensory
    • Origin:
    • -Retina of eye
    • Pass through:
    • -Optic canals of sphenoid
    • Destination:
    • -Diencephalon via optic chiasm

    • Details:
    • -Information is passed to the lateral geniclates nucleui in the thalamus via the optic tract which is then sent to the visual cortex in the occipital lobe

    • -a few axons bypass the lateral geniculate nuclei and synapse in the superior colliculus of the midbrain
    • pg 492
  3. N III/ Oculomotor




    Nerve: "Olympus"
    Type: "Marilyn"
    • Primary functions:
    • -Motor eye movements (same as NIV,NVI
    • Origin:
    • -Mesencephalon
    • Pass through:
    • -Superior orbital fissures of sphenoind
    • Destination:
    • Somatic motor:
    • -superior rectus
    • -inferior retus
    • -medial rectus
    • -inferior oblique
    • -levator palpebrae superioris
    • Visceral motor:
    • -intrinsic eye muscle
    • Details:
    • -changes diameter of pupils; light
    • -changes shape of lens; focus
    • p492
  4. N IV/ Trochlear




    Nerve: "Towering"
    Type:"Monroe"
    • Primary functions:
    • -Motor/eye movement (same as N III,NVI)
    • Origin:
    • -Mesencephalon
    • Pass through:
    • -Superior obital fissures of sphenoid
    • Destination:
    • -Superior oblique muscle

    • Details:
    • -The Trochlea of the eye is a ligamentous sling the each superior oblique muscle passes through
    • -The Trochlea (a pulley) Nerve is the smallest cranial nerve
    • -Damage causes difficulty looking down and to the side
    • pg 493
  5. N VI/ Abducens




    Nerve: "A"
    Type: "My"
    • Primary functions:
    • -Motor eye movement (same as NIII,NIV)
    • Origin:
    • -Pons
    • Pass through:
    • -Superior orbital fissures of sphenoid
    • Destination:
    • -Lateral rectus muscle

    • Details:
    • -Contraction of Lateral rectus makes eye look to the side

    • -Abducens causes Abduction of the eye
    • pg 493
  6. N V/Trigeminal




    Nerve: "Top"
    Type: "But"
    • Primary functions:
    • -Mixed (sensory and motor)
    • Origin:
    • Ophthalmic branch(sensory):
    • -Orbital structures
    • -Cornea
    • -Nasal Cavity
    • -Skin of forehead
    • -Upper eyelid
    • -Eyebrow
    • -Nose (part)
    • Maxillary branch(sensory):
    • -Lower eyelid
    • -Upper lip
    • -Gums
    • -Teeth
    • -Cheek
    • -Nose
    • -Palate
    • -Pharynx (part)
    • Mandibular branch(mixed):
    • Sensory:
    • -Lower gums
    • -Teeth
    • -Lips
    • -Palate
    • -Tongue(part)
    • Motor:
    • -Motor from motor nuclei of pons

    • Pass through:
    • Ophthalmic branch-through superior orbital fissure

    Maxillary branch- through the foramen rotundum(sphenoid)

    Mandibular branches-through the foramen ovale(sphenoid)

    • Destination:
    • -All to the sensory nuclei in pons/mandibular branch also innervates muscles of mastication
    • Details:
    • -Semilunar ganglion-contains the cell bodies of sensory neurons
    • -Tic douloureux (doo-luh-ROO; douloureux=painful) or Trigeminal neuralgia. Painful condition affecting the area innervated by the maxillary and mandibular branches cause is unknown
    • pg494
  7. N VII/ Facial




    Nerve: "Finn"
    Type: "Brother"
    • Primary functions:
    • -Mixed (sensory and motor) to face
    • Origin:
    • Sensory:
    • -Taste receptors on anterior two-thirds of tongue
    • Motor:
    • -Motor nuclei of pons
    • Pass through:
    • -Internal acoustic meatus to the facial canals which end at the stylomastoid foramina pg.216,217,221

    • Destination:
    • Sensory:
    • -Sensory nuclei of pons
    • Somatic motor:
    • -Muscles of facial expression pg.345
    • Visceral motor:
    • -Lacrimal (tear) gland and nasal mucous glands by way of the pterygopalatine ganglion
    • -Submandibular and Sublingual salivary glands by way of the Submandibular ganglion

    • Details:
    • -Bell Palsy: a cranial nerve disorder that results from an inflammation of a facial nerve. can be due to a virus (lime disease and others) wiki
    • -s/s include paralysis of facial muscles on affected side and loss of taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue.
    • -condition can is usually painless symptoms fade after a few weeks or months.
    • pg.495
  8. NVIII/ Vestibulocochlear




    Nerve: "And"
    Type: "Says"
    • Primary functions:
    • -Special sensory: balance and equilibrium(vestibular branch) and hearing(cochlear)
    • Origin:
    • -Monitor receptors of the inner ear( vestibule and cochlea)
    • Pass through:
    • -Internal acoustic meatus of temporal bones pg. 217,221

    • Destination:
    • -Vestibular and Cochlear nuclei of pons and medulla oblongata
    • Details:
    • -Also called acoustic nerves, the auditory nerves and the stato-acoustic nerves
    • pg. 496
  9. NIX/Glossopharyngeal




    Nerve: "German"
    Type: "Brigitte"
    • Primary functions:
    • -Mixed(sensory and motor) to head and neck
    • Origin:
    • Sensory:
    • -Posterior one-third of tongue
    • -Part of the phrarynx and palate
    • -Carotid arteries of the neck
    • Motor:
    • -Motor nuclei of medulla oblongata

    • Pass through:
    • -Jugular foramina between the occipital bone and the temporal bones pg 216,217
    • Destination:
    • Sensory:
    • -Sensory nuclei of medulla oblongata
    • Somatic motor:
    • -pharyngeal muscles involved in swallowing
    • Visceral motor:
    • -parotid salivary gland by way of the otic ganglion
  10. NX/Vagus




    Nerve:" Viewed"
    Type: "Bardot"
    • Primary functions:
    • -Mixed (sensory and motor) widely distributed in the thorax and abdomen
    • Origin:
    • Sensory:
    • -Pharynx (part)
    • -Auricle and External acoustic meatus
    • -Diaphragm
    • -Visceral organs in thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
    • Motor:
    • -Motor nuclei in medulla oblongata
    • Pass through:
    • -Jugular foramina between the occipital bone and the temporal bones pg 216,217
    • Destination:
    • Sensory:
    • -Sensory nuclei and autonomic centers of medulla oblongata
    • Visceral motor:
    • muscles of the...
    • -Palate
    • -Pharynx
    • -Digestive
    • -Respiratory
    • -Cardiovascular
    • Details:
    • -"Vagus" means wanderer pg498
    • -Difficulty swallowing is one of the most common signs of damage to either NIX or NX
  11. NXI/Accessory




    Nerve: "Some"
    Type: "Mmm"
    • Primary functions:
    • -Motor to muscles of the neck and upper back
    • Origin:
    • -Motor nuclei of spinal cord and medulla oblongata
    • Pass through:
    • -Jugular foramina between the occipital bone and the temporal bones pg. 216,217
    • Destination:
    • Internal branch innervates voluntary muscles of
    • -Palate
    • -Pharynx
    • -Larynx
    • External branch controls muscles of
    • -Sternocleidomastoid
    • -Trapezius
    • Details:
    • -also known as Spinal accessory nerves or the Spinoaccessory nerves. pg 499
    • -tested by doctors by asking" can you shrug your shoulders?" Sessions
  12. NXII/ Hypoglossal




    Nerve: "Hops"
    Type: "Mmm"
    • Primary functions:
    • -Motor (tongue movements)
    • Origin:
    • -Motor nuclei of medulla oblongata
    • Pass through:
    • -Hypoglossal canals of occipital bone pg 216,217,218
    • Destination:
    • -Muscles of the tongue
    • Details:
    • -condition is checked by having you stick out your tongue
    • -damage causes tongue to veer toward the affected side. pg 500

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