Biology Exam III

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Author:
anime1003
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77570
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Biology Exam III
Updated:
2011-04-05 23:27:46
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green plants plan stucture
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Chapter 36
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  1. Ecological roles of plants
    • gather energy from the sun
    • produce sugar
    • produce pxygen
    • prevent errosion
    • base of the food chain
    • provide habitat
    • creates soil
    • holds water in soil
    • moderate local climate
  2. Land plants: distinguishing features
    • Photosynthetic
    • multicellular
    • Chloraphil A+B
    • food stored as amylose startch
    • Cell wall of cellulose
  3. LAnd plants: life cycle
    • Alternation of generations
    • (Diploid sporophyte, Haploid gametophyte)
  4. Land Plants: advantage
    • More light
    • Better quality of light
    • More CO2
  5. Land Plants: Disadvantage
    • Less water
    • resources are seperated
    • gravity
  6. Land plant adaptations
    • Waxy cuticle
    • stomata
    • reproductive spores
    • vascular system
    • lignin (wood strcuture)
  7. Synapmorphies of plants
    • Land
    • Moss (non-vascular)
    • vascular
    • fern (seedless)
    • Seed
  8. Seedless vascular plants
    • vascular tissure
    • disperse reproductive spores
  9. seed plant
    vascular tissue and seeds
  10. All plants have____
    alternation of genreration
  11. Advantage od diploid production (sexual reproduction)
    More genetic diversity
  12. Non vascular plants
    Gametophyte dominent
  13. Evolution tree of plants
    • red algae
    • green algae
    • moss
    • fern
    • seedless
    • seed
  14. What plants need to grow
    • water
    • sunlight
    • nutrients
    • carbon dioxide
  15. processes for converting CO2 to sugar
    • Photosystems 1&2
    • Calvin cycle
  16. different organs of plants
    capture different resources
  17. Plants are___
    non-motile
  18. High surface area =_____
    larger environment for gathering diffused resources
  19. Meristems
    Perpetually young cells
  20. Meristems: functions
    • primary growth adds length
    • secondary growth adds width
  21. Phenotypically plasticity
    • genetically identicle
    • different phenotype
  22. Roots: function
    • water uptake
    • nutrient uptake
    • anchorage
    • storage
  23. Stems: function
    • support for light access and sexual reproduction
    • Trasnsport water and nutrients
  24. Blade
    leaf structure
  25. Petiole
    stem of leaf
  26. Hierarchy of plant body
    3 tissue systems in each group
  27. Cross section of stem
    vascular tissue in bundles
  28. Cross section of root
    vascular tissue in collum/circle
  29. Dermal layer: structure
    • Oustised layer
    • secrte waxy cuticle
    • produces hairs and prickles
  30. Dermal layer: fuction
    Protection from water loss, pathogens, and herbavoires
  31. Stoma:function
    • Allows gas exchange
    • limits water loss
  32. Dermal layer: root hairs
    absorb water and nutrients
  33. 3 tissue types
    • Dermal
    • vascular
    • ground
  34. Plants tissues: function
    transport substances (xylem water, nutrients, phloem sugar)
  35. Ground tissue: Stucture
    Matrix
  36. Ground tissue: function
    • Storage
    • Photosynthesis
    • structural support
  37. 3 primary cells make up each tissue
    • Parenchyma
    • collenchyman
    • scelerenchyma
  38. Paranchyma: classification
    generic plant cel
  39. Parenchyma: function
    • Sof/thin prmary cell wall
    • storage
    • photosythesis
    • pigmentation
    • metabolism
  40. Parenchyma: special
    can change cell typr (plastic like)
  41. Collenchyma: classification
    Flexible support
  42. Collenchyma: function
    • thickened 1st wall
    • support growing plant
    • Alive
    • flexible
  43. Sclerenchyma: classification
    rigid support
  44. Sclerenchyma: function
    • lignified cell wall
    • Dead at maturity
    • water transport and support
  45. Plant cell wall
    • primary wall
    • secondary wall
    • plasma membrane
    • ctoyplasm
  46. Where do you find Sclerenchym?
    • hemp
    • linen
    • hard plant parts
  47. Specialized vascular cells (no organells)
    • Ploem
    • sieve tube members
    • companion cells
  48. Primary growth: structure
    apical meristem
  49. 3 types of meristmeatic tissue
    • Protoderm
    • gound meristem
    • procambium
  50. protoderm
    becomes dermal tissue
  51. Ground meristem
    becomes ground tissue
  52. Procambium
    becomaes vascular tissue
  53. Cortex (root)
    ground tissue
  54. Stele (root)
    vascular cylinder
  55. Pith
    Ground tissue (in eudicot stem)
  56. Monocot
    scatered vascular bundles
  57. Eudicot
    Vascular bundle are arranged in circle
  58. leaves have 3 tissue layer
    • Epidermis
    • Mesophyll (ground)
    • Vascular bundles
  59. Secondary growth: purpose
    • increase girth
    • Only in woody plants
  60. secondary growth: proccess
    • vascular cambium moves outwards as it adds more xylem to the inside
    • Fewer phloem cells added
  61. Xylem cells (secondary growth)
    Lignified
  62. Phloem (secondary growth)
    • Soft
    • becomes condesned during secondary growth
  63. Secondary growth: 2 lateral meristems
    • Vascular cambium
    • cork cambium
  64. Vascular cambium
    produces xylem and phloem
  65. Cork Cambium
    produces outer cork
  66. RIngs on trees
    • light rings- fast growth, large vessles
    • dark rings- slow growth, small vessles
  67. Tree rings record...
    environmental info
  68. heart wood
    • clogged with resin
    • no water support
  69. Sapwood
    • dead
    • transports water

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