Psych Test 3

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Psych Test 3
2011-04-06 16:30:04
Psych Test

Psych Test 3
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  1. Learning
    Reletively permanent change in knowledge or behavior due to experience
  2. Classical Conditioning
    "automatic" learning about events that go together
  3. Operant Conditioning
    Learning though behavior followed by punishment and rewards
  4. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
    stimulus that naturally triggers a response
  5. Unconditioned Response
    Natural Response to UCS
  6. Condtioned Stimulus (CS)
    Origionally irrelevant responce that when paired with UCS leade to a CR
  7. Conditioned Response
    Learned Response to previously Neutral CS
  8. Stages in Classical Conditioning
    Acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination
  9. Acquition
    Neutral stimulus paired with UCS, NS leads to CR
  10. Extinction
    CR fades with time if not paired with UCS
  11. Spontaneous Recovery
    weakened reappearence, after pause, of extinguished CR
  12. Generalization
    stimuli simular to CS leads to simular CR
  13. Discrimination
    learned ability to discriminate between CS and NS (opp. of generalization)
  14. Little Albert
    John Watsons experiment of Classical Conditioning using loud noises affiliated with white rats
  15. Thorndike's law of effect
    a rewarded behavior is likely to reacur
  16. The Skinner Box
    a mouse does a certain act (turns on a light) and is rewarded with food and water, the mouse continues this act in order to get more food and water
  17. Shaping
    Reinforcers lead actions closer and closer to desired behavior
  18. Reinforcement
    increaces behavior
  19. Punishment
    decreaces behavior
  20. Positive Reinforcement
    strengthens behavior by adding something desirable after behavior
  21. Negetive Reinforcement
    Strengthens behavior by taking away something undesirable after behavior
  22. Primary Reinforcers
    Basic needs (food, sleep, physical comfort)
  23. Secondary (conditioned) Reinforcers
    reinforcers we learn to value (money, toys)
  24. Continuous Reinforcement
    response reinforced every time
  25. Intermittent (partial) Reinforcement
    response reinforced only part of the time (most resistant to extinciton)
  26. Best Punishment
    Reasonable, Unpleasent, applied immediately
  27. Skinner's Legacy
    cultural shift from punishment to reinforcement
  28. Mene
    knowledge transferred within a culture
  29. How Observational Learning
    premotor cortex "mirror neutron" fire during observation of others
  30. Modeling
    observing and imitating behavior
  31. Imitations are more likely to occur if:
    models are attractive, are somewhat similar to ourselves, and we are physically capable of imitating the models
  32. Prosocial Models
    positive, helpful models lead to learners' positive behaviors
  33. Antisocial Models
    negetive, abusive models lead to learners negetive behaviors
  34. Vicarious Learning
    learn consequences of action by watching others be rewarded or punished
  35. More violent Media leads to
    Aggressive behavior
  36. Memory
    learning that has persisted over time
  37. Method of Loci
  38. Mnemonics
  39. Sensory Memory
    immediate, very brief recording of sensory info iconic (visual) and echoic (auditory)
  40. Short-term Memory (STM)
    (Working Memory) holds few items briefly (20-30sec) usually through rehearsal 7+/-2
  41. Long-Term Memory
    reletively permanent and limitless storage
  42. Explicit (declaritive)
    with conscious recall, possessed in the hippocampus, facts (general knowledge) and personally experienced events
  43. Implicit (non-declaritive)
    without concious recall, Processed by other brain areas, including cerebellum, skills (motor and cognitive) and classical and operant conditioning effects
  44. Encoding
    enters info into memory
  45. Storage
    retains enclosed info over time
  46. Retrieval
    Recalls info when you need it
  47. Spacing Effect
    remember best when learned over time
  48. Serial Position Effect
    recall first and last items best (especially the first), primary effect (first) and Recency (last)
  49. Kinds of Forgetting
    Absent-mindedness, Transcience, and Blocking
  50. Absent-mindedness
    Failure to encode
  51. Transience
    Decay over time
  52. Blocking
    "Tip of Tongue" phenomenon, can't access
  53. Type Distortion
    Misattribution, Suggestibility, Bias
  54. Misattribution
    source confusion
  55. Suggestibility
    May produce false memories
  56. Bias
    Recollection colored by beliefes/emotions
  57. Intrusion, Persistance
    Unwanted memories
  58. Motivated Forgetting
    blocks unpleasent memories
  59. Interference
    New and old learning complete
  60. Flashbulb memories
    seemingly clear memory of emotional significant event
  61. Misinformation effect
    Incorporting inaccurate information into memory