Bio ch.15

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Bio ch.15
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2011-04-05 15:09:04
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Bio ch.15
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  1. Acromegaly
    Condition resulting from an increase in growth hormone production after adult height has been achieved
  2. Addison disease
    Condition resulting from a deficiency of adrenal cortex hormones; characerized by low blood glucose, weight loss, and weakness
  3. Adrenal Cortex
    Outer portion of the adrenal gland; secretes minerlocorticoids, such as aldesterone, and glucocorticoids, such as cortisol
  4. Adrenal Gland
    An endocrine gland that lies atop a kidney; consisting of the inner adrenal medulla and the outer adrenal cortex
  5. Adrenal Medulla
    Inner portion of the adrenal gland; secretes the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine
  6. Adrenocoticotropic Hormone(ACTH)
    Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that stimulates activity in the adrenal cortex
  7. Aldosterone
    Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that decreases sodium and increases potassium excretion; raises blood volume and pressure
  8. Anabolic Steroid
    Synthetic steroid that mimics the effect of testosterone
  9. Androgen
    Male sex hormone(e.g. testosterone)
  10. Anterior Pituitary
    Portion of the pituitary gland controlled by the hypothalamus and that produces six types of hormones, some of which control other endocrine glands.
  11. Antidiuretic Hormone(ADH)
    Hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary that increases the permeability of the collecting ducts in a kidney
  12. Atrial Natruiretic Hormone(ANH)
    Hormone secreted by the heart that increases sodium excretion and, therefore, lowers blood volume and pressure
  13. Calcitonin
    Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that increases the blood calcium level
  14. Chemical Signal
    Molecule that brings about a change in a cell, tissue, organ, or individual when it binds to a specific receptor
  15. Circadian Rhythm
    Biological rhythm with a 24-hour cycle
  16. Cogenital Hypothyroidism
    Condition resulting from improper development of the thyroid in an infant; characterized by stunted growth and mental retardation
  17. Cortisol
    Glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex that responds to stress on a long-term basis; reduces inflammation and promotes protein and fat metabolism
  18. Cushing Syndrome
    Condition resulting from hypersecretion of glucocorticoids; characterized by thin arms and legs and a "moon face," and accompanied by high blood glucose and sodium levels
  19. Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate(cAMP)
    ATP-related compound that acts as the second messenger in peptide hormone transduction; it initiates activity of the metabolic machinery
  20. Diabetes Mellitus
    Condition characterized by a high blood glucose level and the appearance of glucose in the urine, due to a deficiency of insulin production and failure of cells to take up glucose
  21. Endocrine Gland
    Ductless organ that secretes (a) hormone(s) into the bloodstream
  22. Epinephrine
    Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla in times of stress; adrenaline
  23. Estrogen
    Female sex hormone that helps maintain sex organs and secondary sex characteristics
  24. Exocrine Gland
    Gland that secretes its product to an epithelial surface directly or through ducts
  25. Exophthalmic Goiter
    Enlargment of the thyroid gland accompanied by an abnormal protrusion of the eyes
  26. First Messenger
    Chemical signal, such as a peptide hormone, that binds to a plasma membrane receptor protein and alters the metabolism of a cell because a second messenger is activated
  27. Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH)
    Hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the development of an ovarian follicle in a female or the production of sperm in a male
  28. Glucagon
    Hormone secreted by the pancreas that causes the liver to break down glycogen and raises the blood glucose level
  29. Glucocorticoid
    Type of hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that influences carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism; see cortisol
  30. Gonad
    Organ that produces gametes; the ovary produces eggs, and the testis produces sperm
  31. Gonadotropic Hormone
    Chemical signal secreted by the anterior pituitary that regulates the activity of the ovaries and testes; principally, follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) and luteinizing hormone(LH)
  32. Growth Hormone(GH)
    Substance secreted by the anterior pituitary; controls size of individual by promoting cell division, protein synthesis, and bone growth
  33. Hormone
    Chemical signal produced by one set of cells that affects a different set of cells
  34. Hypothalamic-Inhibiting Hormone
    One of many hormones produced by the hypothalamus that inhibits the secretion of an anterior pituitary hormone
  35. Hypthalamic-Releasing Hormone
    One of many hormones produced by the hypthalamus that stimulates the secretion of an anterior pituitary hormone
  36. Hypothalamus
    Part of the brain located below the thalamus that helps regulate the internal environment of the body and produces releasing factors that control the anterior pituitary
  37. Insulin
    Hormone secreted by the pancreas that lowers the blood glucose level by promoting the uptake of glucose by cells, and the conversion of glucose to glycogen by the liver and skeletal muscles
  38. Leptin
    Hormone produced by adipose tissue that acts on the hypthalamus to signal satiety
  39. Luteinizing Hormone(LH)
    Hormone that controls the production of the testosterone by interstitial cells in males and promotes the development of the corpus luteum in females
  40. Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone(MSH)
    Substance that causes melanocytes to secrete melanin in lower vertabretes
  41. Melatonin
    Hormone, secreted by the pineal gland, that is involved in biorhythms
  42. Mineralocorticoid
    Type of hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulates water-salt balance, leading to increases in blood volume and blood pressure
  43. Myxedema
    Condition resulting from a deficiency of thyroid hormone in an adult
  44. Norepinephrine
    Neurotransmitter of the postganglionic fibers in the sympthetic divison of the autonomic system; also, a hormone produced by the adrenal medulla
  45. Ovary
    Female gonad that produces eggs and the female sex hormones
  46. Oxytocin
    Hormone released by the posterior pituitary that causes contraction of the uterus and milk letdown
  47. Pancreas
    Internal organ that produces digestive enzymes and the hormones insulin and glucagon
  48. Pancreatic Islets
    Masses of cells that constitute the endocrine portion of the pancreas
  49. Parathyroid Gland
    Masses of cells that constitute the endocrine portion of the pancreas
  50. Parathyroid Hormone(PTH)
    Hormone secreted by the four parathyroid glands that increases the blood calcium level and decreases the blood phosphate level
  51. Peptide Hormone
    Type of hormone that is a protein, a peptide, or derived from an amino acid
  52. Pheromone
    Chemical signal released by an organism that affects the metabolism of influences the behavior of another individual of the same species
  53. Pineal Gland
    Endocrine gland located in the third ventricle of the brain; produces melatonin
  54. Pituitary Dwarfism
    Condition in which an affected individual has normal proportions but small stature; caused by inadequate growth hormone
  55. Pituitary Gland
    Endocrine gland that lies just inferior to the hypothalamus; consists of the anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary
  56. Positive Feedback
    Mechanism in which stimulus initiates reactions that lead to an increase in the stimulus
  57. Posterior Pituitary
    Portion of the pituitary gland that stores and secretes oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone, which are produced by the hypothalamus
  58. Progesterone
    Female sex hormone that helps maintain sex organs and secondary sex characteristics
  59. Prolactin(PRL)
    Hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates the production of milk from the mammary glands
  60. Prostaglandin
    Hormone that has various and powerful local effects
  61. Renin
    Enzyme released by kidneys that leads to the secretion of aldosterone and a rise in blood pressure
  62. Second Messenger
    Chemical signal such as cyclic AMP that causes the cell to respond to the first messenger - a hormone bound to a receptor protein in the plasma membrane
  63. Simple Goiter
    Condition in which an englarged thyroid produces low levels of thyroxine
  64. Steroid Hormone
    One of a group of hormones derived from cholesterol
  65. Testes
    Male gonads that produce sperm and the male sex hormones
  66. Testosterone
    Male sex hormone that helps maintain sexual organs and secondary sex characteristics
  67. Tetany
    Severe twitching caused by involuntar contraction of the skeletal muscles due to a calcium imbalance
  68. Thymosin
    Group of peptides secreted by the thymus gland that increases production of certain types of white blood cells
  69. Thymus Gland
    Lymphatic organ, located along the trachea behind the sternum, involved in the maturation of T lymphocytes in the thymus gland. Secretes hormones called thymosins, which aid the maturation of T cells and perhaps stimulate immune cells in general
  70. Thyroid Gland 3
    Endocrine gland in the neck that produces several important hormones, including thyroxine, triidothyronine, and calcitonin
  71. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone(TSH)
    Substance produced by the anterior pituitary that causes the thyroid to secrete thyroxine and triidothyronin
  72. Thyroxine(T4)
    Hormone secreted from the thyroid gland that promotes growth and development; in general, it increases the metabolic rate in cells

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