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A drug or medicine given to reduce pain without resulting in loss of consciousness. Analgesics are sometimes referred to as painkiller medications
narcotic effect include mainly
drowsiness and sleepiness
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
simple analgesics that inhibit prostaglandin synthesis to reduce pain and inflammation. And are particularly useful for musculoskeletal complaints.
Produced by acting on the hypothalamus
by inhibiting platelet aggregation hence prevent blood clot
inhibition of prostaglandin secretion, used for inflammatory activity
Used to relieve inflammation and pain and to treat rheumatoid arthritis, bursitis, tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and acute gout
NSAID Side Effect
- Sodium and water retention -Monitor for edema
- Dizziness or drowsiness
- Tinnitus –ringing sensation in the ear
- Blurred vision
- Instruct client to report blurred vision, ringing or roaring in ears; may indicate toxicity
- GI irritation- leading to bleeding
NSAID Nursing Intervention
- Aspirin and an NSAID should not be taken together, because aspirin decreases the blood level and the effectiveness of the NSAID
- Administer at least 30 minutes prior to physical therapy or planned ambulation to minimize discomfort
producing analgesia and reducing fever but it does not have anti-inflammatory properties and has a minimal anticoagulant effect
Acetaminophen (Tylenol) side effect
- Hepatotoxicity leading to Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, Rash and Hypoglycemia
- Renal toxicity-Oliguria
Antidote for Acetaminophen
are drugs that are used to relieve pain but in addition will induce sleep and drowsiness.
Narcotic Side Effect
- Respiratory depression
- Drowsiness and sleep
- Mood changes
- Orthostatic hypotension
- Decreased peristalsis
- Nausea and vomiting
- Narcotics cross the placenta
- Morphine increases intracranial pressure
- Urinary retention
- Pupil constriction
- Hypersensitivity reactions
- Alcohol potentiates
Narcotic nursing intervention
- Monitor respiratory rate if less than 12/min, withhold medication and report to doctor
- Do not give to clients withb COPD or Pulmonary Congestion because of respiratory depression
- Pre-op narcotics should be given 1-2 hours before surgery so that the peak respiratory depressant effect will be over when anesthesia is administered
- put up side rails, lower bed height and do not allow patient to go to the bathroom unassisted.
- do not stop medication abruptly. Gradually withdrawal
- head injuries
- Oxycodone with aspirin (Percodan)
- Narcotic Should not be taken with alcohol
- Contraindicated in severe respiratory disorders
- Elderly or debilitated clients should receive decrease dosage.
migraine attacks and are designed to stop symptoms that have already begun
people with severe migraine attacks
Side effects of triptans
nausea, dizziness, muscle weakness and, rarely, stroke and heart attack
a common prescription for migraine before triptans were introduced; less effective, than triptans.
prochlorperazine (oral or rectal suppository).
Medications containing narcotics, particularly codeine, are sometimes used to treat migraine pain
Preventive medications can reduce the frequency, severity and length of migraines and may increase the effectiveness of symptom
This antihistamine specifically affects serotonin activity.
prevent seizure by inhibiting seizural activities in the brain.
side effect common to Anti-convulsant
- Suppression of bone marrow
- CNS depression
- GIT Irritation
- Severe skin allergic reaction
They act by causing CNS depression thereby suppressing seizure activities in the brain.
Barbiturate Side Effect
- Nystagmus- an involuntary rhythmic movement of the eyes, usually from side to side
- Paradoxical excitement
- Tolerance and dependence
Used in the treatment of absence seizure and myoclonic
Used in the prevention and treatment of seizure.
side effect of hydanton
- Gingival hyperplasia-gum swelling-very common in hydatoin
- Turn body fluid- urine, sweat and saliva pink or red brown.
- Reddened gums that bleed easily
- Hirsutism- hairy growth especially in women
- Alopecia- bald head in men
- Slurred speech
General Nursing Intervention for Anti-convulsant
- Always check blood therapeutic level of anticonvulsant
- Observe safety precaution due to drowsiness
- Advice patient do not take alcohol
- Monitor for blood abnormalities
- Monitor for signs of medication toxicity
Phenytoin (dilatin)-Nursing Intervention
- Phenytoin readily binds with protein, so do not give with protein food or milk, which inhibit uptake
- Inform patient thatred-brown or pink coloration of the urine and sweat may occur
- Advice patient on meticulous oral hygiene – due to gingival hypertrophy.
- Perform proper brushing of teeth with soft toothbrush and proper flossing –patient to see dentist frequently
- Increase vit D intake or exposure to sunlight
- Do not give IV because or risk of cardiac arrest
Central Nervous System Stimulant
- medication that stimulate CNS and cause the release of adrenaline and dopamine form the crebal cortex
- Supression of appetite
Central Nervous System Stimulant Uses-
- Treatment of narcolepsy-excessive day time sleep
- exogenous obesity
- ADD-attention deficit disorders
Central Nervous System Stimulant comtraindicated
Do not take CNS stimulant if you have used an MAO inhibitor